Fragmented States and Pragmatic Improvements
Susan Fainstein’s theoretical stance was forged in the late 1960s and 1970s when urban political movements were inspiring young urbanist intellectuals. Her concern for inequality and social justice and her use of a political economic framework for analyzing them have remained consistent to this day. The evolution of her thought has been driven by her empirical work, which has led her to mis-givings about the potential of community empowerment to achieve progressive change for two rea-sons: neighborhoods themselves can be dominated by self-serving agendas; and when neighborhood agendas are progressive, they are unlikely to prevail unless backed by influential leaders. Although she does not consider planners as able to bring about major changes by themselves, she does think they can refocus agendas, oppose harmful policies, and press for greater equity. Despite skepticism that powerful elites will yield to the force of persuasion, Fainstein’s understanding of the state and capital as fragmented inspire a view that planners can work strategically with broad-based social movements and reformist politicians to build more Just Cities.
Altshuler, Alan A. 1965. The City Planning Process: A Political Analysis. Ithaca and London: Cor-nell University Press.
Altshuler, Alan A, and David E Luberoff. 2004. Mega-Projects: The Changing Politics of Urban Public Investment. Brookings Institution Press.
Berman, Sheri. 2003. “The Roots and Rationale of Social Democracy.” Social Philosophy and Policy 20:113–144.
Bernstein, Eduard. 1993. The Preconditions of Socialism. Edited by Henry Tudor. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Campbell, Scott, and Susan S. Fainstein, eds. 2003. Readings in Planning Theory. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
Castells, Manuel. 1977. The Urban Question: A Marxist Approach. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Chodorow, Nancy. 1978. The Reproduction of Motherhood. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cott, Nancy. 1987. The Grounding of Modern Feminism. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Cloward, Richard A., and Francis Fox Piven. 1975. The Politics of Turmoil: Poverty, Race and the Urban Crisis. New York: Vintage Books.
Dahl, Robert Alan. 2005. Who Governs?: Democracy and Power in an American City. Yale Uni-versity Press.
Davidoff, Paul. 1965. “Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning.” Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 31(4) 331–338.
Etzioni, Amitai. 1973. “Mixed-Scanning: A ’Third’ Approach to Decision-Making.” In A Reader in Planning Theory, by Andreas Faludi, edited by Andreas Faludi, 217–29. A Reader in Planning Theory. New York, NY: Pergamon Press.
Evans, Peter B., Dietrich Ruescheyer, and Theda Skocpol., eds. 1985. Bringing the State Back In. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fainstein, Susan S. 1993. “Planning in a Different Voice”, Planning Theory, 7: 13-17.
__________. 1996. “Justice, Politics, and the Creation of Urban Space.” In The Urbanization of Injustice, edited by Andy Merrifield and E. Swyngedouw, 18–44. London: Lawrence & Wishart. Published in Norwegian translation as Rettferdighet, politikk og utviklingen av urbane rom (Jus-tice, Politics, and the Creation of Urban Space), in Sosiologii dag (Sociology Today [Norway]), 3 (1994), 25-44. Published in Japan in Home Rule & Civil Society (Journal of the Local Public Entity Organization), No. 7 (March 1996), 1-26. Reprinted in Malcolm Miles, Tim Hall, and Iain Borden (ed.), The City Cultures Reader, 2nd edit. London: Routledge, 2004.
__________. 1997. “The Egalitarian City: The Restructuring of Amsterdam.” International Plan-ning Studies 2(3): 295-314. Reprinted as The egalitarian city: images of Amsterdam in Leon Deben, Willem Heinemeijer, and Dick van der Vaart, eds. Understanding Amsterdam, 2nd edit. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 2000, pp. 93-116.
__________. 1999. “Can We Make the Cities We Want?” In The Urban Moment: Cosmopolitan Essays on the Late-20th-century City, edited by Robert A. Beauregard and Sophie Body-Gen-drot, 249–272. Urban Affairs Annual Reviews; v. 49. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
__________. 2000a. “New Directions in Planning Theory.” Urban Affairs Review 35 (4): 451–478.
___________. 2001. The City Builders: Property Development in New York and London, 1980-2000. 2nd edition. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press. (1st edition, Oxford, Blackwell 1994)
___________. 2005. “Feminism and Planning.” In . Gender and Planning edited by Fainstein and Servon, 120-38. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
__________. 2009. “Searching for the Just City: Debates in Urban Theory and Practice.” PP. 10-39 in Planning and the Just City, edited by Peter Marcuse, James Connolly, Johannes Novy, Ingrid Olivo, Cuz Potter, and Justin Steil. New York: Routledge. Abridged and translated into Czech in ERA21 Spravedlivá architektura (1), 2011, 20-23.
_____________. 2010. The Just City. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
__________. 2012. Land Value Capture and Justice. Pp. 121-40 in Value Capture and Land Pol-icies, edited by Gregory K. Ingram, and Yu-Hung Hong. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.
_________ forthcoming. “State Domination in Singapore’s Public-private Partnerships”. Journal of Urban Affairs.
Fainstein, Susan S., and Norman I. Fainstein. 1971. “City Planning and Political Values.” Urban Affairs Quarterly, 6 (March 1971): 341-62.
_________. 1974. Urban Political Movements; The Search for Power by Minority Groups in Amer-ican cities. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall.
__________. 1976. “Local Control as Social Reform: Planning for Big Cities in the Seventies.” Journal of the American Institute of Planners 42 (3): 275–285.
___________. 1978. “National Policy and Urban Development.” Social Problems 6(Decem-ber):125– 146. doi:10.1525/sp.1978.26.2.03a00020.
__________. 1979. “New Debates in Urban Planning: The Impact of Marxist Theory within the United States.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 3: 381-403. Reprinted in Christopher Paris (ed.), Critical Readings in Planning Theory. London: Pergamon, 1982.
__________. 1982.”Neighborhood Enfranchisement and Urban Redevelopment.” Journal of Plan-ning Education and Research 2 (1): 11–19. doi:10.1177/0739456X8200200104. eprint: http://dx. doi.org/10.1177/0739456X8200200104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/ 0739456X8200200104.
__________. 1985. “Is State Planning Necessary for Capital?” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 9 (4):485–507. ________. 1986a. “Economic Change, National Policy, and the System of Cities.” Pp. 1-26 in Su-san S. Fainstein, Norman I. Fainstein, Richard Child Hill, Dennis Judd, and Michael Peter Smith, Restructuring the City, Revised Edition. New York: Longman, Inc.
________.1986b. “Regime Strategies, Communal Resistance and Economic Forces.” Pp. 245-83 in Susan S. Fainstein, Norman I. Fainstein, Richard Child Hill, Dennis Judd, and Michael Peter Smith, Restructuring the City, Revised Edition. New York: Longman, Inc.
Fainstein, Susan S., Norman I. Fainstein, and P. Jefferson. Armistead. 1983. “Bureaucratic En-franchisement Under the Community Development Block Grant Program.” Journal of Urban Af-fairs ,5 (2): 123–139. ISSN: 1467-9906. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9906.1983. tb00028.x. http://dx.doi. org/10.1111/j.1467-9906.1983.tb00028.x.
Fainstein, Susan S., Norman I. Fainstein, Richard Child Hill, Dennis Judd, and Michael Peter Smith (1983, 1986). Restructuring the City, New York: Longman, Inc.
Fainstein, Susan S. and Scott Campbell, eds. 1996. Readings in Planning Theory. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1996. Revised edition, 2003. 3rd edit., 2011 (Wiley-Blackwell).
Fainstein, Susan S. and James DeFilippis, eds. 2016. Readings in Planning Theory. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1996. 4th edit., Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Fainstein, Susan S., and Clifford Hirst. 1995. “Neighborhood Organizations and Community Pow-er: The Minneapolis Experience.” In Revitalizing Urban Neighborhoods, edited by Dennis Keating, Norman Krumholz, and Philip Star. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, pp. 96–111.
Foglesong, Richard. 1986. Planning the Capitalist City. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Fraser, Nancy, and Axel Honneth. 2003. Redistribution or Recognition? A Political-Philosophical Exchange. New York: Verso.
Gans, Herbert. 1968. People and Plans. New York: Basic Books.
Giddens, Anthony. 1981. A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism. London: Macmillan.
Gilligan, Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice. Harvard University Press.
Gorz, André. 1967. Strategy for Labor: A Radical Proposal. Boston: Beacon Press.
__________. 1968. “Reform and Revolution.” Socialist Register 5:111–143. %5Curl%7Bhttp:// so-cialistregister.com/index.php/srv/article/view/5272%7D.
Hacker, Jacob S, and Paul Pierson. 2010. Winner-Take-All Politics: How Washington Made the Rich Richer–and Turned Its Back on the Middle Class. Simon and Schuster.
Hartz, Louis. 1955. The Liberal Tradition: An Interpretation of American Political Thought Since the Revolution. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
Harvey, David. 1975. Social Justice and the City. Baltimore, MD.: Johns Hopkins University Press.
_________. 2000. Spaces of Hope. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Harvey, David, and Cuz Potter. 2009. “The Right to the Just City.” In Searching for the Just City: Debates in Urban Theory and Practice, edited by Peter Marcuse, James Connolly, Johannes Novy, Ingrid Olivo, Cuz Potter, and Justin Steil, 40–51. NewYork: Routledge.
Hayek, Freidrich von. 1944. The Road to Serfdom. London: George Routledge / Sons.
Healey, Patsy. 2003. “Collaborative Planning in Perspective.” Planning Theory 2 (2), 101-24.
Hirschman, Albert O. 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty; Responses to Decline in Firms, Organiza-tions, and States. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Klosterman, Richard E. 2003. “Arguments For and Against Planning.” In Readings in Planning Theory, by Scott Campbell and Susan S. Fainstein, edited by Scott Campbell and Susan S. Fain-stein, 2nd ed., 86–101. Readings in Planning Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lake, Robert W. 2016. “Justice as Subject and Object of Planning.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 40(6): 1205-1220.
Lindblom, Charles.1959. “The Science of Muddling Through.” Public Administration Review 19 (2): 79–99.
Luxemburg, Rosa. 2008. “Reform or Revolution?” Pp. 41-104 in The Essential Rosa Luxemburg, edited by Helen Scott. Chicago: Haymarket Books.
Machler, Leonard, and Dan Milz. 2015. Innes: The Evolution of Communicative Planning Theory. AESOP Young Academics Booklet Series B. Groningen: In Planning, October.
Mannheim, Karl. 1954. Man and Society in an Age of Reconstruction. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., Inc.
Marcuse, Peter. 1978. “Housing Policy and the Myth of the Benevolent State.” In Critical Perspec-tives on Housing, by Rachel Bratt Chester Hartman and Ann Myerson, edited by Rachel Bratt Chester Hartman and Ann Myerson. Critical Perspectives on Housing. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Marcuse, Peter, and Ronald van Kempen. 2000. Globalizing Cities : A New Spatial Order? Stud-ies in Urban and Social Change. Studies in Urban and Social Change. Oxford, OX, UK ; Malden, Mass.: Blackwell.
Marx, Karl. 1978. “The German Ideology, Part I.” In The Marx-Engels Reader, by Robert C. Tucker, edited by Robert C. Tucker. The Marx-Engels Reader. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
Michels, Robert. (1962) Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy, trans.” Eden and Cedar Paul (New York: Hearst’s International Library Co., orig. pub. 1915) (1962): 390-92.
Needleman, Martin L., and Carolyn Emerson Needleman. 1974. Guerrillas in the Bureaucracy: The Community Planning Experiment in the United States. NewYork: Wiley&Sons.
Nussbaum, Martha Craven. 2000. Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Nussbaum, Martha Craven. 2011. Creating Capabilities: The Human Development Approach. Cambridge: Belknap Press.
O’Connor, James. 2002. The Fiscal Crisis of the State. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
Olson, Mancur. 1971. The Logic of Collective Action; Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Pareto, Vilfredo. 1991. The Rise and Fall of Elites: An Application of Theoretical Sociology. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers (orig. pub. 1901).
Potter, Cuz. 2013. “How Can We Realize Just Cities? The Revisionist Debate in Contemporary Planning.” Dublin: AESOP / ACSP Joint Congress 2013, July 16.
Rawls, John. 1999. A Theory of Justice. Revised. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sandercock, Leonie and Ann Forsyth. 1992. “A gender agenda: new directions for planning theo-ry”. Journal of the American Planning Association, 58(1), 49-59.
Sassen, Saskia. 2001. The Global City. 2nd edit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sayer, Andrew R. 1992. Method in Social Science: A realist approach. 2nd edit. New York: Rout-ledge.
Sen, Amartya. 1999. Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor Books.
Smith, Adam.1863. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Edinburgh: Adam / Charles Black.
Stone, Clarence N. 1993. “Urban Regimes and the Capacity to Govern: A Political Economy Ap-proach.” Journal of Urban Affairs 15 (1): 1–28.
Weber, Max, David S. Owen, Tracy B. Strong, Rodney Livingstone, Max Weber, and Max Weber. 2004. The Vocation Lectures. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub.
Wildavsky, Aaron. 1973. “If Planning Is Everything, Maybe Its Nothing.” Policy Sciences, Policy Sciences, 4 (2): 127–53.
Wilson, Elizabeth. 1991. The Sphinx in the City. London: Virago. •
Young, Iris Marion. 2000. Inclusion and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
__________. 1990. Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Keywords:Planning, Susan Fainstein, Social Justice, Community Empowerment
Copyright (c) 2018 Cuz Potter, Sai Balakrishnan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.