Publication: How congruence between formal and informal institutions effects integrated transport and land use planning: a study on dutch national planning practice
The field of transport planning is in flux, influencing the way developed countries plan, program and budget their transport infrastructure. Planning scholars and policy makers increasingly acknowledge that integrating land use and transport planning generates opportunities for synergetic benefits and helps evade unwanted consequences such as project time and cost overruns. Despite this emerging concept of integrated infrastructure planning, examples of successful employment remain scarce. For this paper the institutional context associated with infrastructure planning has been studied to identify incongruences which hamper integrated infrastructure planning practices. The explicit focus is on how horizontal (cross-sectoral and cross-border) and vertical (between scales) integration in road infrastructure planning is adversely influenced by counteracting formal and informal institutions in different phases of the policy cycle. Evidence is derived from a six-month research project on the current Dutch national infrastructure Planning, Programming and Budgeting System. This research has studied how integrated infrastructure planning is influenced in the different phases of the policy formulation, policy adoption, policy execution and monitoring and evaluation. Findings are distilled by triangulation of literature research, policy analysis, interviews with 22 experts, 2 focus groups and a workshop. In addition, multidisciplinary sounding board meetings, including both scholars and practitioners, were organized to reflect on interim findings. Results illustrate that every phase of the decision making process presents distinct formal and informal institutional incongruence which hampers integrated infrastructure planning. Furthermore, insights were generated on the different roles formal and informal institutions play in affecting integrated infrastructure planning practices. Findings of this study may be used as input for institutional design strategies which aim at enhancing the integration between infrastructure and land use planning as well as for developing further research trajectories.
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