Where is the commuters? Research of shanghai commuting traffic based on transportation cards data

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With the rapid urbanization, revolution of housing policy and the development of public transportation technology, the high price of city center drives people to move to the suburbs, the distance between home and workplace shows a sharp rising. Daily commuting becomes an important part of daily life and a crucial issue that cities need to face. On this occasion, commute is becoming a universal phenomenon and a prevalent research issue. Without exception, commute is becoming a widely common phenomenon in Shanghai which is located in the Yangtze River Delta metropolitan area. In Shanghai, most of commuters select metro as the tool of commuting because of the relevant reliability and punctuality. As shown in the figure 1, hundreds and thousands of commuters crowd onto the metro during the morning and evening rush hours every day in Shanghai. Such curiosity gives rise to this commuting behaviors, emphasizing on spatial distribution of the places that commuters live and work, the commuting transportation tool (diversification or simplification) they choose, some potential suggestions and advice for the decision-making and policy-setting produced based on the commuters’ behaviors, with appropriate quantitative evidence and visualization illustrations. The commuters’ behaviors play an important role in studying the structure of jobs-housing spaces. Robert Cervero (1996) proposed that the imbalance between home and workplace contributed to the commuting behaviors [1]. Levinson proposed the accessibility to substitute the balance between employment and residence to analyze the impact of urban commenting. He found that higher accessibility contributed to the less time consumption for commuters. Therefore, Levinson concluded accessibility was more convincing to analyze the commuting behaviors. [2] The commuting behaviors were impacted by the urban spatial structure, major researches focus on the scale of city, the density of residence and employment, as well as mixed land use. Cuertis’ research indicated that high-density and inclusive development was beneficial to public transportation. [3] Besides, social elements were also regarded as the important aspects to analyze the commuting traffic. Based on Hanson’ research, some social and economic indicators such as age, gender and income can be applied to analyze the commuting behaviors. [4] For many western countries, the official data like the data of population census are open, specific, easy and free to obtain, even some data in individual level are also public, which provide the data base to analyze the groups of commuters and even the individual commuter. Therefore, western researches of commuting traffic are more quantitative and precise.
Book of proceedings: Annual AESOP Congress, Spaces of Dialog for Places of Dignity, Lisbon, 11-14th July, 2017
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