Achievements and challenges on inclusionary housing and land value captures instruments in Brazil to produce socially mixed neighbourhoods

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Since the 1980s in Brazil there’s a recognition of irregular settlements struggle for their urban integration in a way that transformed public action on these spaces, creating a new way to intervene in order to qualify the urban settlements and environment and city and housing rights, guaranteeing settlements tenure. In this context, emerged the instrument of Special Social Housing Zones (SSHZ), designed initially focused on the recognition of the struggle of the residents of informal settlements and their integration in the city in the 1980s. In 1990s, another strategy was chosen using the same instrument over sub used of empty areas: to overcome social territorial exclusion models through urban regulation. The hypothesis was that to intervene in urban regulations can produce the opposite effect zoning historically promoted: exclusion, segregation, gentrification. This paper shows some Brazilian experiences that tried to combine SSHZ with land value capture in Master Plans to combine resources captured in Urban Operation (public + private partnership), to spent in social housing projects to promote inclusion and avoid segregation. B circle: not always the resources are enough to support the housing deficit in the area, the exclusion happens inside the urban project by defining big areas as the perimeter to receive resources, and often, we can find more public budget funding housing and transport interventions that should be the aim of land value capture. Highlights that the slum upgrading is not used on these strong market contexts, and points to the hypothesis that it can be also a part of a strategy to overlook the gentrification process that can happen, considering the characteristics of the relocation process. But yes, Brazil is using land value capture traditional instruments to be combined with slum upgrading, although, it is more often used the more expensive option: public budget to fund slum upgrading, outside the market driven context of urban operations.
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