Publication: Transnational spaces in the city, between fractalization and diversity new relations between center and periphery
Contemporary metropolis are increasing their transnational spaces and relations such as, the CBD, the internet and cluster places directly related to the global and transnational networks. Different migrations are implemented first in areas of fordist production then in the place of the service economy. These processes challenged the relations between center and periphery (concentration, dispersion, value of urban land). These processes are also challenging the differentiation between internal migrant and the new migrant. The consequences are different on employment access and stability, on residential settlements, on participation to the city. The first question comes for a better description of the transnational metropolis, on the specific process of differentiation, competition so to settle the degree of inequalities : -Transnational areas related to center and periphery; -School policies and migrants access (interior, exterior, new) - Politics of diversity concerning national migrant and external migrants. Two types of discrimination and inequality could be specified : The inequalities and race relations of the subaltern internal migrant, linked with the foundational state; the inequalities of competition and transactional economy for the new migrants. *The second step of analysis intends to develop a better assessment of economic and public policy;Effect of economic redevelopment and conversion policy; Effect of anti discrimination politics concerning the access to market, access to civic rights, access to public service; Effect of diversity policies. The analytical challenge is to compare two metropolis inside their transnational areas concerning key social processes such as the relations between center / periphery, the antidiscriminatory policies.. The comparison will be developed between the two cities of the Paris region (12 millions), Vienne and Bruxelles metropolitan (3/5 million unhabitants). The results concerns the discriminating effects of some policies : The diversity policy manages the competition between migrants, with populist racism .Market policies for equal distribution do not act directly on differential and foundational racism. Public policies are under tension have to combine equality of access, between civic participation and enlarged transnational open networks. The question of metropolitan incorporation and its limits (education, politics, metropolitan economy) comes along with the issues of reinforcement of transnational spaces (multiple relationships, multiple player, polycentrality, dystopia). The metropolitan tensions split between settlement policy and diversity policy, between migrant from the inside and new migrants, between Inequality of access and injustice. The modernization process combining resources, skills, retraining are reframed by these side variables. * Traditional analyzes of transnationalism focus on CBD, their ability to dominate and to reorganize the metropolis by attraction and polarization ‘ Knight and Gappert, Gordon) assuming the risk of subordinating or forgetting the periphery. What has become of the peripheries in this new conjuncture of the transnational economy ?, The images of distribution networks, service society and subordinate flexible employment seem predominating. Our paper consider the double face of transnationalism, in the new regimes of economic interdependence (including neo-liberalism), in the management of populations (numerous migrations, refugees according to the type of incorporation). The regimes of urban interdependence are affected by these two sides of the transnational spaces, hence comes a series of conflict and disruption, which deserve to be specified. Our presentation examines the changing relations between the center and the periphery in popular areas social spaces (peripheral cities and pendulum mobility), in the middle classes (patrimonial city and gentrification, individualized transport). In the centrality of (European) metropolis, the peripheries of the metropolis are driven by the mass consumption, by urban bourgeoisies in their selected access to the center, by cultural tourism. We consider how migrant diversity and possible cosmopolitanism are perceived. New relations between North and South relations write their marks, their inscription and their reference in urban peripheries and in urban centers. The result is a diffracted view of the relations between the center and the periphery which urban analysis must be able to account for. It affects the relationships between urban spaces of diversity and plural identities. *The urban laboratory focus on the diversity of cultures and access to the center (Ledrut, Lefebvre). The migrant question, developed by the Chicago school, involves the reception of migrants and their social rights, and the definition of a common public space (Park, Hughes). Two models are presented; The urban mosaic of communities (Chicago Park) dispatched a plurality of territories in friction and competition (Kivisto, 2009). It initiates the territorial dialectic of boundaries and identities (Lamont, 1998). Other theses emphasized the conditions and possibilities of gathering identities through iterative processes (Benhabib, 2005), by concrete approaches to gathering closer to bodies and subjectivities (Butler, 2016). Our approach intends to extend the parameters of the urban laboratory, not only on the central occupation, but also on the types of urban exchanges and the trajectories of access to the center. We will present the fieldworks, the communes Bagneux and, Sevran (as laboratory of social differentiation) inside Paris Metropolis. The social dynamic and spatial dynamic organization of Parisian metropolis will be compared with the social and spatial dynamics of the relation center and periphery in Bruxelles and Vienna metropolis.
Book of proceedings: Annual AESOP Congress, Spaces of Dialog for Places of Dignity, Lisbon, 11-14th July, 2017
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