Commuting patterns and car dependency in urban regions

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We have analyzed car dependency in urban regions in the Netherlands, focusing on the lack of alternatives for the car in daily commuting. As geographical factors like distance from home to work and accessibility of job locations shape important conditions for potential behavioral change in car use and ownership, we map out the alternatives to the car for commuting in urban environments in the Netherlands, with emphasis on the bicycle and e-bicycle for shorter distances and combined bike-train for longer distances. In 2014, in the three big cities and some medium-sized cities (30% of the Dutch population), 60-80% of the commuters have jobs within an acceptable cycling distance (within 7.5 km on average). Moreover, in all big and medium-sized cities and most of the suburban areas in the Netherlands (61% of the population) 60-80% of commuters have a job within e-biking distance (within 15 km on average). These geographical conditions could allow a doubling of the share of the bicycle and the ebicycle in commuting, becoming the dominant forms of commuting in urban areas in the Netherlands. Looking at trends over time, it appears that in the large cities there is a stabilization of the share of jobs within e-cycling distance, but the medium-sized cities show a decrease. The South Limburg case study examined the potentials of the bike-train combination and found that it provides a reasonable alternative to the car for approximately 5% of employees with jobs located beyond e-biking distances.
Book of proceedings: Annual AESOP Congress, Spaces of Dialog for Places of Dignity, Lisbon, 11-14th July, 2017
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