Environmental versus urban planning and management – a comparative analysis between metropolitan areas of Fortaleza (Brazil) and Lisbon (Portugal)

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The process of industrialization in Portugal, if compared to the rest of Europe, occurred belatedly, coinciding with the same period in Brazil, in 1940, 1950, 1960. During this period a large number of people migrated from the countryside to the major cities in search of better living conditions, and settled in the territory, in a continuous process for decades. The public authorities’ actions were quite limited in these two countries. However, in Lisbon between 1935 and 1948, one third of the city was expropriated by initiative of Duarte Pacheco, then Minister of Public Works and Speaker of the House in Lisbon. The centralizing policies comprised a strong territorial intervention in a period of intense population growth, the city was endowed by planning instruments that allowed to tame urban expansion. In Portugal until 1965, the public administration took over exclusively the planning and production of urban land, acting with some urbanistic coherence. This fact was not observed in Brazil, considering that the instruments of urban management were created after the enactment of the Federal Constitution in 1988, decades after the great immigration. Thus, the population that migrated from the hinterland into the Brazilian state capitals, for the most part settled in remote areas, far from any infrastructure, often occupying conservation or risky areas in the proximity of railways or next to flammable activities.
Book of proceedings: Annual AESOP Congress, Spaces of Dialog for Places of Dignity, Lisbon, 11-14th July, 2017
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