Publication: Framing the social amplifications of risk in urban transformation of Istanbul
International disaster risk reduction framework concentrates on global cause and effect relations of natural disasters from a nominal perpective that hardly copes with developing countries relative socio-economic conditions and turns in to a matter of internalization. There is a requirement of a complementary perspective to observe and mesasure the socio-economic effects. From a theorethical research perspective, social amplifications of risk introduce us the how social and economic feedbacks in a social system could amplify or repress disaster impacts. Common efforts on reducing disaster risk has been defined comprehensively through International Decade for Disaster Risk Reduction (1989). Yokohoma Strategy (1994) and Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-2015) were the concomitant procedures followed by Sendai Framework (2015-2030) recently. The general emphasis of sustainable development other than reducing disaster risks and poverty were determined as the main coordinated tasks. In order to reduce disaster risks Hyogo Framework (2005-2015) focused on national goals integrated to local action plans as the top priority and an institutional commitment. As a precondtion of determining urban risk drivers in each country mainstreaming information, innovation and education were identified as urban scale targets that would lead to develope a prevention culture and resilience. In disaster risk management, objectives have been shifted from post disaster perspectives as preparedness, response, emergency and recovery to proactive strategies as disaster risk reduction and mitigation. (UNISDR, 2004) Sendai Framework held in the 3rd World Conference of UN in Japan, makes clear determination in reducing disaster risks while preventing the new risks to generate in urban systems. Poverty, inequality, climate change and unplanned-volatile and rapid urbanization were depicted as urban risk drivers that generate the impacts of disaster risks. Last decade, the perspective on risk as a social phenomenon truly altered the risk perception from a sole physical statement in to a social statement affected by, social, socio-economic and cultural statements. The similar emphasis in Sendai Framework (2015-2030) reclaimed that reducing disaster risks, vulnerabilities and urban poverty demand new priorities from urban planning and disaster risk reduction. Disaster risk reduction not only concentrates on the impacts of disasters but also vulnerabilities that imply potential dangers and gaps in the physical environment. Vulnerability includes the socio-economic attributes of disaster risks, and defined as the potential referring to physical, economic, natural and social losses and losses in human life. (UNISDR, 2009) Vulnerability and poverty have an intertwined relationship in urban system. Poverty is defined as insufficient nutrition, sanity, education and habitation conditions as well as safety and all other basic needs. (WB, 2001) As an urban component of poverty, squatters are in the first rank in reducing disaster risks for environmental degradation, policy changes, rural unemployment, urban immigration, strict building codes, and other physical vulnerabilities. In fact factors determining the urban poverty and vulnerability differs. In society, all low-income groups might not be vulnerable to disasters while mid to high income groups could be vulnerable. (Bankoff, 2003) As stated in Sendai Framework, vulnerability to natural disasters, urban poverty and risk drivers indicate for explanatory qualities in determining disaster risks in urban environment. Distinct socio-economic groups in urban environment have been also exposed to disaster risk relatively distinct. In Turkey, low income groups have been faced with the major negative impacts drastically. Referring to recent approaches in Turkey and international frameworks this paper aims to seek authentic definitions for social amplifications generated by/doubling up socio-economic drawbacks and vulnerabilities in urban transformation process of Istanbul.
Book of proceedings: Annual AESOP Congress, Spaces of Dialog for Places of Dignity, Lisbon, 11-14th July, 2017
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