Publication: Мetropolitan governance approaches in developing sustainable European cities
Metropolitan areas involve several jurisdictions at different levels of authority and different interests. National policies in political and economy systems might influence the distribution of power and resources among territorial authorities in steering the metropolitan area development (Nicholls, 2005; Boudreau et al, 2006). Furthermore, other actors besides the government typically have conflicting interests among them. Consequently, some policies are formulated and implemented without coordination among related actors and without sufficient consideration on sustainability (Nicholls, 2005; Boudreau et al, 2006; Firman, 2008; Islam, 2014). In dealing with complexity of metropolitan area characteristics, individual actors within metropolitan areas obviously cannot work independently. Coordination among them is required, especially in addressing negative impacts of economic and social activities on environment and the provision of public goods and services. Institutional improvement of metropolitan areas through examining governance models is inexorable (Firman, 2008). Institutional changes are needed to make urban governance more effective in achieving sustainable city (United Nations Human Settlements Programme, 2009). In addition, transformation through social and political action is required in managing city to be sustainable (Hopwood, et.al, 2005).
Book of proceedings: Annual AESOP Congress, Spaces of Dialog for Places of Dignity, Lisbon, 11-14th July, 2017
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