The Spatial Characteristics and Supply of Urban Affordable Housing -- An International Comparative Study

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It is an emerging issue for the supply of urban affordable housing that the spatial distribution marginalization and the separation of workplace and residence lead to socio-spatial problems. This study takes an international comparative approach and analysis the different of spatial distribution characteristics in urban area and the formation mechanism of affordable housing, focusing on cities in developed countries, e.g. Amsterdam, London and Singapore, as juxtaposition to Shanghai, China. Before conducting a transnational comparison, this research reveals the socioeconomic characteristics of policy takers under the state context by analyzing the policy objectives of affordable housing in various countries, because of the significant differences in definition of beneficiary and supply mode between countries. Based on that result, this research maps the spatial distribution pattern of affordable housing clusters where the comparable resident groups living at the four case cities, and analysis the socio-economic mechanism behind spatial characteristics. It points out the implicit meanings of affordable housing policy connotation are reflected by urban residents' willingness and proportion to own housing. And, government and market-led intervention also have a profound impact on affordable housing's spatial distribution in the city. Finally, this research argues that the classification standards of the citizen groups are different due to diversity in state institution and cultural context, which further leads to the difference in social justice represented by spatial pattern, comparing these four cities. European cities may be more concerned about the equity of human development opportunities, while cities in East Asia may be more concerned with the equality of household wealth. And these different are presented in terms of spatial features.
Affordable housing, spatial characteristics, supply mechanism, international comparative