Characteristics of Tod Guidance System and Enhancement Strategies in China
As urbanization progresses, the rapid growth of urban population size and the surge in demand for land will lead to continuous urban development and spatial expansion. In the last century, the motor-oriented development model adopted by many cities in Western developed countries has induced a series of urban problems [1, 2], including traffic congestion, air pollution, energy overload consumption, social differentiation and land waste. In this context, the concept of "New Urbanism", which advocates compact, high-density, diverse, mixed and sustainable development, has emerged [3, 4], of which Transit-oriented Development (TOD) is an important component. TOD is a type of urban development that maximizes the amount of residential, commercial, and recreational space within walking distance of public transportation; it emphasizes a close symbiotic nesting relationship between urban form and public transportation, and it is a concept that has been developed by the American architect Peter Calthorpe in his book The American Metropolis of the Future: Ecology-Community-American Dream. The TOD model has been used by many cities around the world [5-8] and has played a crucial role in promoting intensive urban development [9, 10], enhancing urban vitality and transportation synergy [9, 11, 12], and promoting low-carbon travel [1, 10]. Many cities in China are now vigorously developing urban public transportation to improve urban transportation services. It is urgent to explore how to scientifically guide the development of station areas, promote the efficient and high-quality construction of station-integration, improve the spatial quality and human-oriented experience of the city, and thus achieve sustainable urban development. Cities in North America have undergone a transformation from sprawling development to smart and intensive development, in which the TOD model has played a significant role. Therefore, this paper adopts an inductive and case study approach, firstly, to analyze the characteristics of the current TOD guidance system in China, and at the same time, to analyze the experience of North American cities in order to provide a reference for China's practice.
Transit-oriented Development , China , Guidance system and enhancement strategies , TOD guidelines