Incorporating Smart Technologies for Energy Sufficiency in Built Environment of Developing Countries : An Architect's Perspective

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This is a burning problem of present era. The present unplanned and uncontrolled growth of housing cares little about energy conservation aspects. Sometimes even providing minimum energy to all households is not becoming possible by the local authorities. Studies reveal that around 18% of total energy consumption of mankind is in housing sector. It is necessary to consider energy conservation techniques before, during and after construction; as energy can be saved considerably in each stage. Over 80% of the embodied energy in mass housing is the energy required to manufacture the materials. Most of this energy usage is for manufacturing only a small number of the (high-energy) materials used in construction of housing units, principally steel products, cement, concrete products, bricks and ceramic materials. This embodied energy amounts to several times the annual energy consumption of that same housing in use. Energy is used wastefully in heat recovery processes, insulation techniques, and simple orientation concerns. Architectural lighting & space heating/ cooling are also two of the largest and most visible consumers of energy. A properly designed energy efficient housing will have a lower initial cost than one planned disregarding energy consequences. This cost advantage derives mainly from smaller building volume & lower energy demands. . The conventional centralized energy distribution network accounts for high transmission losses (ranging from 9 to 20% at times). In Indian context grid loss sometimes reach upto 35%. The energy consumption in residential structures accounts considerably high than other buildings, also it is a recurring ever cost increasing phenomena. It is very difficult to remain in the city and save energy beyond a certain limit without compromising the present day materialistic lifestyle by the city dweller households.
energy conservation, housing, developing countries, smart technologies, Building Management Systems