Research on renewal of leftover spaces based on multi-actor planning

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Leftover spaces in cities are becoming a global issue. Having undergone significant changes in historical, spatial, political and socio-economical aspects, the number of leftover spaces has been increasing year by year. Now cities are facing the challenge of integrating them into their urban fabric. This research first focuses on worldwide cases that show the current approaches to reuse these leftover spaces, and then systematically classifies them according to their multi-actor planning strategies. The classification includes: diverse models (top-down, bottom-up, public-private partnership) by engaging with different actors at various levels of participation. China has its own urban renewal rules and policy system. Influenced by factors such as its state structure and economic system, China and the West have many differences. Based on the case classification that provide a worldwide overview and the real condition in China together with its existing needs, this study develops “City 360” platform as a democratic, multi-level planning tool and an innovative method to tackle the following problems in leftover space renewal process: simplification resulting in social inequality, information imbalance, resources/funds shortage and diversification encouraging urban complexity, inclusive planning. “City 360” turns the process of leftover space renewal from an urban simplification into an urban diversification, and responds to high-level challenges. Having integrated multiple actors into a participative process creates collaborative urban governance, which can balance the power among state, society and market, and maximize the cooperation in between government, private sector, community self-governing organizations, volunteer organizations and residents. This innovative, inclusive multi-level planning tool helps integrating development resources, promotes the vitality in developing urban communities. It aims creating a new level in Chinese urbanization, which has started with “traditional governance” and transformed into “multilevel governance”. The goal is now “traditional governance” to “governance” to “good governance”.
Leftover Space, Multi-level Governance, Multi-actor Participation, City 360