In support of global integrated landscape initiatives: Experiences from the Green Heart in the Netherlands
Spatial planning is seen as an important instrument that could support the integrated landscape management (ILM) process. This paper presents the insights derived from important moments in spatial planning history, in the Netherlands, signifying that spatial planning consists of dynamic processes that anticipate and adapt to changes in society. The Green Heart is taken as an example of an integrated planning approach on a regional scale, which is appropriate for integrated landscape management (ILM). During the last 30 years since spatial planning in the Netherlands shifted from sectoral to integral, the role of the national government changed from blueprint planning to stimulating and facilitating planning processes of regional and local authorities. This has provided opportunities for multi-stakeholder platforms to effectively contribute to the spatial planning process. This paper elaborates positive and negative effects of those changes, providing insights in the form of lessons learned, which can be useful for planning processes of integrated landscape initiatives around the globe.
Landscape planning, integrated landscape management, Green Heart, Netherlands