Institutional patterns for metropolitan governance in LAC countries The differentiated evidence from Bolivia and Brazil

Within the framework of regional urbanization and post-metropolization (Soja, 2011, 2005, 2003) and global cities (Sassen 2016, 2008), Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) metropolitan areas, often grown throughout the aggregation of adjacent municipalities, under the pression of urbanization and urban growth (Balbo, 2014) have not been properly governed (Maricato, 2011). Nevertheless, numerous cases in LAC countries show that horizontal cooperation among municipalities and vertical cooperation among the municipal level and other government levels are essential to promote shared and effective governance and territorial coordination (Souza, 2017). To do so, a multi-scalar approach (Brenner, 2016) in territorial policies should be used, implying simultaneous horizontal and vertical cooperation among government levels and actors, under a supposed direction for development. In this light, the paper discusses empirical pieces of evidence from the observation and analysis of a range the metropolitan configurations, where interinstitutional cooperation has played a key role in setting a metropolitan governance pattern, in improving urban management, especially in basic services. The selected case studies are the inter-federative cooperation in the State of São Paulo (Metropolitan Regions of São Paulo and Baixada Santista), in the State of Minas Gerais (Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte) and some metropolitan experiences in Bolivia (de facto region of La Paz-El Alto, and de facto and de iure region of Cochabamba).
metropolitan governance, institutional configurations, Bolivia, Brazil