Neoliberal Governance and Accumulation by Dispossession in Karaburun Peninsula, Izmir, Turkey
The transition to neoliberal governance brought along the transfer of the property or the right to use of natural areas to the private sector. Having undertaken the role of deregulation and reregulation, the state has provided the legal framework of new capitalist activities leading to the commodification and marketization of natural areas, which were previously non-commodified or non-marketized. In this way, the biophysical world has been encompassed in the accumulation process. On the other hand, with privatization or the assignment of use rights, unowned, state-owned, communally-owned areas have become spatial fixes for capital. Hence, the people living adjacent to, or in these areas, have been deprived of the right to use of them. Karaburun Peninsula is encompassed into this process especially after the 2000s. The forests, pastures, natural conservation areas, coastal and the sea, which were belonging to State or open to the use of local people, have been enclosured for, and exposed to the sustainable energy investments, fish farming, quarries, industrial agriculture, and tourism by private sector initiatives. So, the local people have been dispossessed by legalized transfer of use or property rights, as they can no longer sustain their daily practices and relations to nature to make their living.
privatization, dispossession, enclosure, governance