Bicycle-Metro Integration for The 'Last Mile' in Shanghai

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Cycling is always considered to be one of the most popular daily traffic tools in cities due to its flexibility, convenience and low cost. Moreover, Bicycle-metro integration is theoretically considered to be an effective solution for improving public transportation efficiency of "last mile" between home and metro station in big cities. However, this proposition has not been fully proved in practice. In recent years, the emerging dockless bike-sharing system makes it possible to examine the spatial integration between flexible bicycle traffic and rail transit. Compared with traditional public bicycle systems with fixed docks, such as New York Citibike, this new bike-sharing system demonstrates the mobility and flexibility of cycling. We randomly sampled the GPS coordinates of 80,000 dockless bikes in Shanghai, which represent the origin and destination points of cycling. We mapped the bicycle traffic on an equal population cartogram of Shanghai to distinguish overall patterns within the center of Shanghai. Results show that most of the high-frequency cycling streets still centre around metro stations. The streets basically present a gradual decline from the metro stations to outlying areas in terms of cycling frequency, which indicates that bicycle-metro integration has already become the basic model for daily transport in Shanghai.
Bicycle-metro integration, the 'last mile', dockless bike-sharing system, Shanghai