2017 Spaces of Dialog for Places of Dignity, Lisbon 11-14th July

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  • PublicationOpen Access
    Oilandscapes. The reconversion of fossil fuels meshes as “green energy backbones” for the territorial restructuring of the third industrial revolution
    (AESOP, 2017) Verde, Alberto; Massarente, Alessandro
    Fossil fuels industry has always been carrier of huge spatial transformations: first of all, because the extraction of carbon-fossil resources requires the investment of huge amounts of funds to deploy a widespread infrastructural network, and secondly, because the associated industrialization process deeply contributed in the definition of new urban morphologies and settlements. We could affirm that fossil fuels and industrial revolutions represent two sides of the same coin. Since the end of XVIII century, the two industrial revolutions have been dominated by a fossil fuels’ monopoly in terms of energetic production, firstly driven by coal-based activities and later by oil. As already known, hydrocarbon resources are not equally and democratically distributed in the subsoil, and this has created over the centuries some vertical dependences between fossil fuels suppliers and consumers, which completely redefined the geo-political equilibrium among countries. One of the most remarkable effects of this unbalanced distribution of fossil resources in the subsoil had been, especially during the first industrial revolution, the territorial attractiveness of hydrocarbon-rich territories for the settlement of huge heavy industry sites. The consequent high concentration of employment reshaped the territorial hierarchies among population, countryside, urban areas and infrastructures. The aim of the first part of the paper is to investigate about the role that fossil fuels industry played in the definition of territorial hierarchies during the first and the second industrial revolutions. The analysis will be led through a comparative study of some GIS cartographies of two renowned European territories: the “Ruhr region” and the “central Veneto region”. In the second part of the paper, we will focus in a more proactive way on the “oil mesh of the North-Eastern Po valley” and wonder about how fossil fuels infrastructures could be “deengineered”, albeit maintaining their energy production identity, and imagined as “green infrastructures”, so becoming those landscape articulators which can foster the dialogue across territorial, urban and architectural scales thanks to their new socio-ecological role. The “scenario building” (Viganò, 2012 and Sijmons, 2014) will root its beliefs, assumptions and constraints around the vision of the “energetic transition towards the third industrial revolution” which, as advocated by the American economist J. Rifkin (2011), envisages a massive shift towards new renewable and territorially distributed forms of energy production.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Which standards for public open space? a new conception for the 21st century city
    (AESOP, 2017) Rofe, Yodan; Cremaschi, Marco
    What all historical centres have in common is that they are built along streets, and streets make up most of their public space. Streets make up between 25 and 35% of the land area of these urban centres. It is not too difficult to see the impact of modern ideas of city planning on the urban fabric. Watch whatever city on google maps and shift outwards to almost any new development begun in the latter half of the 20th century. All these areas are characterized by having fewer streets; greater distances between intersections; mid to low building coverage; either high or low rise buildings and density; but always extensive open spaces, mostly green areas. Cities are made of buildings and the spaces between them, both private and public (Marshall, 2004). Planners and policy makers have invested more in the design and regulation of the built up areas, standards mandating parks and gardens being a notable though limited exception to the rule. The recent critique of contemporary urbanism, has stressed the need of interconnecting again the two separate halves. In this paper we deal with the problem of what should we demand from public open space (POS) in the cities of the 21st century. In particular, we address the question of the balance between streets, public parks and gardens. Eventually, we ask the question of how much POS is needed and what are the best ways to supply it? Until fairly recently, “orthodox” planning culture would have answered unanimously in favour of more parks and gardens, a trait severely criticized by Jacobs in the following quote: In orthodox city planning, neighborhood open spaces are venerated in an amazingly uncritical fashion, much as savages venerate magical fetishes… Walk with a planner through a dispirited neighborhood and though it be already scabby with deserted parks and tired landscaping festooned with old kleenex, he will envision a future of More Open Space (Jacobs, 1961, p. 96).
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Evaluating neighbourhood sustainability assessment methodology as a localization tool for global targets
    (AESOP, 2017) Özdal-Oktay, Simge
    In the last two decades, global sustainable development concerns have become more decisive on urban development strategies. This new order also created two major sub-processes. While the first one mainly covers the interpretation of major scale sustainable development goals into subnational strategies, the second one includes providing a successful sustainability monitoring mechanism in coherence with national obligations for global sustainability targets. Sustainability assessment methodology (SAM) have gained importance by standing at the intersection of these two sub-processes. SAM tools have been developed in different geographies for monitoring and supporting sustainable development principles throughout the design and implementation processes. In this context, this paper presents a framework for the utilization of these methodologies in the localization of global sustainability targets through the case of Turkey. For this purpose, criteria of eight existing Neighbourhood Sustainability Assessment Tools (NSAT) were compared for obtaining a combined matrix. In the first stage, provided matrix evaluated in terms of global sustainability targets and Turkey’s national obligations. For providing a local framework and discussing the coherence between national sustainable development strategies and sectoral priorities. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used as a simple prioritization technique and applied to decision makers, academicians, activists and project executors from different sectors. The applied framework brings a new perspective and provides an initial guideline for localization of global sustainability goals over discussions on Turkey.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Achieving spatial quality in integrated planning: an evaluation of the Dutch ‘room for the river’ program using qualitative comparative analysis
    (AESOP, 2017) Verweij, Stefan; van den Broek, Jelte; Busscher, Tim; van den Brink, Margo
    In line with recent trends towards area-oriented planning, flood risk management has seen a shift from a water control strategy towards a water accommodation strategy. In the Netherlands, this resulted in the policy program Room for the River. The projects in this policy program are expected to achieve two key objectives: first, the accommodation of higher flood levels, i.e., water safety, and second, improving the spatial quality of the riverine areas. Whilst research has shown that the program is successful with respect to increasing water safety, less is known about its second objective. This paper thus has two aims: (1) assessing the extent to which the program has been able to achieve spatial quality and (2) identifying the conditions that explain this. To these aims, archival and survey data were collected, and analyzed using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). The analysis shows that there are various combinations of conditions for achieving spatial quality. We conclude that these different combinations entail different strategies, and that by means of those, the program management has been successful in achieving spatial quality in the Room for the River program.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Modeling ecological networks and land value for the prioritization of natural areas conservation
    (AESOP, 2017) Martinez, Laurent
    The strategy promoting Green Infrastructure (GI) from European institutions (2013) considers the spatial structuration of (semi) natural areas as a network and resulting environmental features impacting populations. The strength of the GI’s approach lies in the effort to integrate the ecological and social values of natural areas in combination with other land development (Lafortezza et al. 2013): this strategy encourage an integrated approach of space planning at different scales and promote the multiple services associated with natural areas. From a conservation biologist perspective, it is not a new idea, since it is based on environmental continuity, ecological networks and landscape connectivity. Yet, considering natural landscape as a network that offers a structural frame for the development of the biodiversity of tomorrow (and secure some ESS for our societies) forces to rethink our spatial planning approaches. Landscapes are seen in this paper as a dynamic and structured spaces with a social dimension where management and planning play a key role. Physically, landscapes are composed of artificialized components (Grey infrastructure) and natural components (Green infrastructures) in interaction. In France, planning process is historically a top-down process based on technical and professional expertise. After several decades of planning at national scale, French government tends to give more decisional power to regional and local scales (i.e., decentralization). Multiple guidance documents of soft planning such as SCOT (Schéma de Cohérence Territoriale/ territorial coherence program), present a mix between national, regional strategies and the translation of European directives about environment and socio-economy. Town planning regulations are now framed by this soft planning, but local collectivities still have to adapt it, dealing with all the contextual and operational components. Their task is to spatially, legally and institutionally define and regulate urbanistic rules at the finest scale (hard planning; Purkarthofer, 2016). Moreover, the planning process is gently opening to democratic participation with mitigate successes. We will focus on a problem coming from the difficulties to take account of the different values of natural areas. These values correspond to different estimations of natural areas in ecological or socio-economical terms.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Participative approach for developing national level green infrastructure policy: a reflection on Slovenian spatial development strategy
    (AESOP, 2017) Penko Seidl, Nadja; Golobic, Mojca
    This paper addresses three issues: 1. First, the contents (outcomes), as well as the process of the development of Slovenian spatial development strategy 2030 (SPRS 2030) will be presented. SPRS is the strategic national planning document, which was adopted in 2004 and is currently in the process of revision. 2. Second, green infrastructure planning within the SPRS will be discussed. 3. And third, the findings from the evaluation study, explicitly analyzing the vertical and horizontal integration potential will be presented. Slovenian spatial development strategy is a national strategic planning document. The strategy was adopted in 2004 and it’s currently under the process of revision. The whole process follows the policy development cycle and can be divided in three basic steps: (1) first, spatial policy is adopted/developed, (2) second, measures and projects are implemented, and (3) third, the implementation of measures and projects is evaluated. After SPRS was adopted in 2004, several studies and evaluation reports have been prepared from to evaluate spatial development and the implementation of SPRS: Zero report on the status of spatial planning (Černe and Kušar, 2005), An analysis of current situation, development trends and guidelines for Slovenia spatial development (Pogačnik et al., 2011), SPRS 2030 - An analysis of the implementation of SPRS programmes and measures (Golobič et al., 2014). In 2016 Report on spatial development of Slovenia (Miklavčič et al., 2016) was prepared as a synthesis of all aforementioned reports. It also serves as expert groundwork for the preparation of new spatial development strategy.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Utilizing spatial and landscape planning to promote ecological conservation on university campuses
    (AESOP, 2017) Orenstein, Daniel; Troupin, David; Segal, Ella; Hakima-Koniak, Gili; Holzer, Jennifer
    Universities globally have committed themselves to behaving as responsible citizens in addressing global ecological challenges through physical planning and management of their campuses. At the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, a comprehensive, two-year planning effort was made to revise the vision and physical plans of the main university campus in Haifa to meet emerging 21st century challenges facing the academic community. Defining and addressing ecological challenges was integral to this effort and an ecological advisory team worked closely with campus planners to envision an ecologically sustainable campus. This paper reflects upon this process, from its first stages of problem definition and goal setting, through a multifaceted ecological survey and the integration of architectural and urban planning students into the planning process, to production of the final statutory zoning plan and strategic master plan. The study highlights the particular challenges of a campus that sits on the interface between urban and natural ecosystems and one that demands rapid development with a concurrent desire to preserve ecological integrity. Conclusions highlight the universality of the ecological responsibilities and challenges that universities face, suggest general strategies for exploiting the planning process towards ecological sustainability goals, and advocate for the integration of students into campus design activities.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Articulating nature, culture and urbanization: an experience of metropolitan planning in Belo Horizonte
    (AESOP, 2017) Palhares, Rogério; Soares de Moura Costa, Heloisa
    The Trama Verde e Azul, blue and green network, or simply TVA, is one of the main territorial structuring dimensions of regional/metropolitan planning adopted for the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region - RMBH, Southeast Brazil. Developed as a result of a bottom up participatory planning process and inspired by international as well as local green infrastructure and river restoration programs, the TVA proposal seeks to articulate nature, culture and urbanization, through the combination of a series conservation units, open spaces, community facilities and other environmental and cultural assets, all connected by a water system of rivers, streams and lakes, and focusing on planning strategies for land use control, organic and family agriculture, ecologic tourism and ecosystem service delivery programs, among others. This paper discusses the extent to which these metropolitan planning strategies may lead to social and environment transformation towards justice, focusing on TVA implementation, highlighting zoning categories, design criteria and other planning and community involvement programs being collectively built through a rich but very contentious combination of statutory instruments and negotiation strategies involving stakeholders, public officials, planners and policy makers.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Green infrastructure as emerging opportunities for inclusiveness. complexity and dynamics in Munich northern region
    (AESOP, 2017) Andreucci, Maria Beatrice; Di Sante, Giada; Rolf, Werner; Romina, D´Ascanio; Palazzo, Anna Laura
    Munich is a growing city and is one of the most competitive metropolitan areas in Germany, characterised by a dense concentration of functions developed through complex and dynamic ecological, social and economic networks acting at city, region and global levels. The increase of landscape consumption due to settlement and traffic is accordingly above average and accounted for 6% between 2004 and 2010. The population of the City of Munich, currently about 1.5 Mio., is expected to grow by approximately 230,000 inhabitants until 2030. With around 7% the expected population growth between 2010 and 2030 is nowhere else as high in Germany; the actual number of population for the whole region is around 5,5 Mio. Within the city, the population density is one of the highest in Germany, with 47 residents per hectare. 39% of the residents are foreigners or Germans with a migration background. Population growth and urban development are increasing putting pressure on the urban green spaces. On the other hand, those trends reclaim the development of connected green blue infrastructure for recreation and other social benefits. Moreover, on-going social and environmental changes, such as the diversity of cultures and lifestyles, and the growing requirements for a healthy and resilient city already influence the space development of Munich at various levels, posing several intertwined challenges to the different stakeholders.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Political conflict on spatial practice at urban parks in Turkey: Cases af Ankara and İstanbul
    (AESOP, 2017) İlkay, Yasemin
    Urban parks are defined as ‘green’, ‘open’ and ‘public’ spaces where citizens recreate themselves; interact with nature and each other. Furthermore, (as lived spaces) parks provide a backcloth for spatial practices and (re)produce urban everyday life via framing daily rhythms and behaviours within their physical boundaries. Nonetheless, urban parks (as conceived spaces) are regulated via official decisions of the state, especially by the hand of local governments, which implies the spatial policy of the party in power and capital accumulation process rather than use value of inhabitants and spatial quality of natural-built environment. Indeed, spatial policy is fragile particularly in the countries like Turkey, since it is extremely influenced by the political-economic shifts. Moreover, neo-liberal spatial policies stretched the limits and definitions of public and private spaces; which led to both deformation of open-green areas and privatization of public spaces. We can follow a disruption and displacement process within urban public spaces and green areas especially in the cases of Ankara and İstanbul, two great cities of Turkey. As an essential example, Ankara was conceived and re-designed delicately in 1920s as the capital of newly-established nation-state which has both a spatial and political essence in the planning history of Turkey. The re-creation of Ankara served for not only creating new publics with their (public) spaces but also constituting the examples of modern city planning in new Turkish Republic (i.e. Gençlik Park [meaning Youth Park, one of many examples constructed in several other Turkish cities in early-republican period] and Güvenpark [the name of the park means ‘safety’, ‘trust’; it was designed with a symbolic-political content and formed as a part of both the master plan of the city (Jansen Plan) and micro design of the city–centre]). However, public space pattern of the city has been gradually disrupted in the following decades. Rather than staying in and practicing publicness, citizens tend to pass through open public spaces, which is partly a result of incremental and arbitrary approaches to the design and construction. Moreover, the political-symbolic displacement process –during the reproduction of open public spaces and urban greenery– led to a decrease in the socio-spatial quality of such spaces. On the contrary to the first era of early-republican period, dysfunctional and poor-quality public spaces have been constructed and reproduced through plans, codes and projects of decision makers hand in hand with market mechanisms though their recreational and public potentials via urban daily experience.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Green infrastructures: a framework to apply a multiscalar and transectoral approach in planning
    (AESOP, 2017) Pedrazzini, Luisa
    According to EU strategy green infrastructure is: “a strategically planned network of natural and seminatural areas with other environmental features designed and managed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services. […]. On land, GI is present in rural and urban settings” (EC, 2013b:3) therefore, it is recognised and referred to a multifunctional network of healthy ecosystems, serving the interests of both people and nature (Figure1). Referring to planning instruments this drives to assume that a green infrastructure (GI) strategy should favour a better integration between territorial/urban planning and design with sectorial planning and other instruments and policies with spatial impact by the mean of the multifunctional nature of GI. In order to foster the improvement of approaches and tools towards its implementation, the planning experience currently under way in Lombardy Region (IT) related to the new Regional Landscape Plan (RLP) is a good example that assumes concretely the role and potential of green infrastructures in spatial planning with a multi-scalar approach. The RLP fully undertakes the principles of the European Landscape Convention (ELC), where: ”Landscape” means an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors” (COE, 2000), recognizing the importance of environmental and ecological components in landscape planning, and improving the integration between cultural and environmental aspects. Moreover, according to the ELC, the plan pays great attention to “landscapes that might be considered outstanding as well as every day or degraded landscapes” (COE, 2000) considering that this typology of landscape covers a large part of Lombardy, corresponding to the metropolitan region of Milan.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Green infrastructure in liminal streetside spaces : cases from European city cores
    (AESOP, 2017) Tamminga, Ken
    Human interactions ranging from everyday socialization to celebratory gathering and insurgency are all more or less accommodated along the streets of contemporary Western cities. In the denser quarters of European cities, in particular, the street is the setting along which much of the civic life of urban dwellers is played out. As the pedestrian moves laterally from the roadway curb outwards, a narrow ribbon of quasipublic/private space that emerges from adjacent buildings is usually encountered. In the city core and inner ring suburbs, this transition zone harbours stoops, landings, areaways, pavement gaps at foundation walls, facades, sills and lintels, handrails, stairwells, and other niches that present urban dwellers with tight-but sufficient opportunity for streetside horticulture and related accoutrements. It is this underappreciated transition zone, and the recreational and expressive activities associated with growing plants in it, that is addressed below. I use the term convivial green street to convey an assemblage of features and patterns in a supportive context (street, built form). This setting is enacted by gardeners (residents, merchants, employees) who cultivate plants to a degree sufficient to elicit some sensory appreciation on the part of passers-by and, now and then, to prompt social engagement between cultivators, neighbours, and passers-by who share the street’s frontage.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Green Space System Planning Based on the Green Infrastructure - A Case Study of Ji´An, China
    (AESOP, 2017) Fang, Zhuojun; Geng, Hong
    With the rapid promotion of China’s urbanization, problems of rapid urbanization gradually threaten the healthy and sustainable development of the city. The theory and method of the traditional green space system planning is difficult to meet the basic requirement for modern cities, which embodies in: 1) Evaluates urban green space system planning and construction of urban green space by the green index, resulting in result in low benefit of many urban green space system planning; 2) Planning is mainly confined to the built-up area, and lack of consideration on the regional ecological integrity and the relationship between green spaces inside and outside the city. The green space system planning within the region is difficult to implement; 3) Lacks of mechanism to promote the effective participation of multisubject. Planning Text often one-sided emphasizes on the harmony between human and nature, but lacks of the powerful means of space construction; 4) Green spaces and other construction sites are placed together and isolated in the city, and the result is that green spaces have been eroded by construction sites. Therefore, the green space system planning in the new period must break through the limitations of the traditional green space system planning. The layout of the green space system must be based on the principles of Urban and Rural planning and ecological construction, and consider the green spaces within and outside the city integrated, systematic and ecological. This requires planning workers not only to consider problems with macroscopic spatial and temporal scale, but also implement specific work of meso and micro level. We should fully grasp the structure and function, form and elements of green space in a specific urban and rural environment, to make the artificial environment and the natural environment to form a coordinated system.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Winter buzz and summer siesta in Zagreb - perceptual differences in soundscape of the sequence of urban open spaces
    (AESOP, 2017) Oberman, Tin; Bojanić, Bojana; Šćitaroci, Obad; Jambrošić, Kristian; Kang, Jian
    What makes a good public space? There are many answers to this question, but no definite ones. This ongoing research focuses on perceptual differences within sequences of urban open spaces in the historical city centres of Zagreb, in Croatia, and Sheffield, in the United Kingdom, in the hope of providing some new insights. A harmonious historical setting is perhaps one of the most recognisable visual factors, while soundscape is one of the most elusive. The former can be protected by law as cultural heritage, but the latter changes according to activities and weather conditions, regular or irregular daily or weekly rhythms, or even seasons. Yet both contribute to personal assessments of comfort in public space and in the end, directly to the quality of city life (Carr et al, 1992). Both the chosen locations were recognised as containing sequences of acoustically specific urban open spaces, with different visual presence of historical elements. Studying their perceptual differences and similarities may lead to a better understanding of the importance that soundscape and the authenticity of a heritage setting have in the management and enhancement of urban open spaces. The paper focuses on the sequence in Zagreb known as the Green Horseshoe. It consists of seven squares and one park of approximately the same sizes and shapes, with similar traffic regulation, but different ambiences in their central parts, due to different types of foliage, pavilions and activities. No square on its own conveys a particular aural experience, but in a sequence, they are worth investigating, as the fact that they are nearly the same shape and size eliminates the influence of these factors during comparison. The visual and acoustic properties differ from one square to the next, like the rooms within a Baroque enfilade from the salon to the boudoir – from the square housing the opera building to the Botanical Gardens. The complex was built in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Today, it forms a vital part of Zagreb’s city centre, where the historical setting has been well preserved (Knežević, 1996). However, not all the urban open spaces in the sequence are equally important or adequately used in terms of their potential.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Regeneration strategy and evaluation of shanghai huangpu river under the background of transformation and development
    (AESOP, 2017) Zhang, Ying
    Shanghai, as China's economic, financial, trade center, as well as national historical and cultural city, is undergoing urban transformation, to the global city forward. Shanghai City Master Plan (2016-2040) put forward the "global city - innovation city, eco-city, the city of humanities," the goal. However, with the development of urbanization, Shanghai has entered the stage of inventory development. Connotative development has become Shanghai 's Development Strategy, including innovation dynamics, city vitality, city regeneration, inventory planning, city character. The research object of this article is the regeneration strategy of the Huangpu River area in recent 15 years. Huangpu River is Shanghai's mother river, 61 km from north to south, through the central city of eight districts. The Huangpu River series has a lot of historical features of the city heritage areas, including the Old City, the Bund, Origin of modern industry, Luiiazui modern financial district, the Expo area, the old dockland. Planning area along riversides is about 144 square kilometers. The leading group for the regeneration of the Huangpu River was established In 2002 by Shanghai city government, overall planning and construction. In this article, the policy analysis, planning interpretation, construction implementation and preliminary evaluation of the regeneration will be carried out by field investigation, interviews, analysis and comparison, and data analysis. This article will focus on Fuxing Dockland area. The dockland is located in south of the Bund and east of the old city, representing the modern inland shipping characteristics. It is a continuous evolution of the cultural landscape. The implementation process is analyzed from the aspects of special study, planning and design, key project advancement and overall reform. The implementation results are evaluated from the aspects of functional transformation, building conservation and reconstruction, historical preservation and human settlement improvement. Also discusses the gentrification, authenticity and continuity. Shanghai is China 's fastest region of urbanization process over 90% urbanization rate. The demand for development represents the aspirations of many cities. Shanghai has promulgated a series of regulations, standards, codes to promote urban regeneration. The government-led integration of business and personal strength system represents the local characteristics of Shanghai. New City Agenda in HABITAT Ⅲ said, culture is the key source to what makes cities attractive, creative and sustainable. The urban heritage conservation and the scientific development of city will be taken seriously.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The role of public space in the recent transformations of mexico city. from protagonist to forgotten actor
    (AESOP, 2017) Moreno-Villanueva, Mildred; Montejano-Castillo, Milton
    In recent years, the topic of public space has taken a lot of force, leading to discussion with different perspectives in forums of international importance and intertwining it with issues of urban planning, culture, economy, politics, disasters or morphology to name a few. Its recent relevance is not only because of its new consideration as a subject of study, but mainly because of its importance in practice, that is, due to its use, function and design with the main focus of caring for the human being in his daily life in the city. In the 21st century, the public space is known in different ways, it can vary according to culture and territory (different practices in each city), as well as in the form: parks, squares, gardens, streets or public institutional spaces. The complexity of its study does not depend on its approach, but on the integration of several approaches to address the reality of the city. In this sense, the urban processes that transform the society also impose new trends for the public space, that is, the economic, political, technological and cultural transformations are captured in the public space as a reflection of a changing society with demands that go at great speed. With the assumption that it is essential for urban studies to include different approaches, and to pay attention to the processes that transform the city, three views are taken into account for the understanding and analysis of the public space: 1. The social vision in the human sense of habitability, i.e. the human condition of public space, 2. The inclusive vision regarding physical and social aspects of the public space and 3. Finally a vision in the globalized sense of the trends reflected in the space.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The (in)consistent community boundaries : temporality in multiple social-spatial interactions
    (AESOP, 2017) Zhu, Tianyu; Li, Qi
    Boundaries are temporal. The perception of a boundary is an interactive process in relation to specific social contexts. This article investigates the temporality of community boundaries, focusing on their social-spatial interactions through performatives, which contribute to both the inconsistency and consistency of the perceived boundaries, and analyzes the dynamic community boundaries in time with empirical evidences from two typical Beijing neighborhoods. Building on an analogy with theater performances, the article brings forward a conceptual framework for the understanding and analysis of community boundaries in urban space, with a focus on the stimulators of spatial-temporal transformations. The temporality of boundaries can be understood in two perspectives, situational and representational. While the former promotes inconsistency of boundaries with ruptures and shifts, the latter brings consistency to boundaries through bring diachronic, repeating perceptions to the contemporary spaces. The temporality of community boundaries implies a connection of the neighborhood and surrounding urban areas. The more a community is integrated, the more changes and shifts take place to the boundaries, which hence become flexible, tolerant, and porous with publicness.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Sounds in the city workshops: integrating the soundscape approach in urban design and planning practices
    (AESOP, 2017) Steele, Daniel; Dumoulin, Romain; Kerrigan, Christine; Guastavino, Catherine
    This paper discusses urban sound and is based on the work of the Sounds in the City2 team, operating out of McGill University in Montreal, Canada. The team's focus is an approach called soundscape, which is a departure from a more traditional approach to urban sound. Urban planning education and practice have traditionally been focused on noise mitigation, concentrating almost exclusively on reducing urban noise levels. However, this method has its limitations because a quiet city is not necessarily an interesting or better one. The soundscape approach, on the other hand, encourages positive sounds in urban environments while mitigating only unwanted sounds and it also necessitates planning the environment far in advance rather than waiting for noise problems to occur. This approach is attracting the attention of many as an innovative and positive shift in the way we create, manage and control sound in our cities. It also presents the opportunity for more collaboration between planners, designers3 and sound experts to improve our urban spaces. Soundscape has been defined by a diverse International Organization for Standards (ISO) working group of soundscape researchers and professionals as “the acoustic environment as perceived and experienced by people or society, in context” (ISO 12913-1, 2014).
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Village character – to the roots of rural aesthetics
    (AESOP, 2017) Rýpar, Vít
    Quality of public spaces is one of the crucial themes of contemporary architecture and urban design also because its significance is evident not only to the architects. Even in the era of strong individualism, public spaces pertain to the whole of a community and jointly form its identity. Therefore, it is reasonable to pay attention to their aesthetic nature on a general level. This paper aims to provide an intelligible ground for a creative grasping of the rural character of environment based on two criteria: 1) the relationship of figure and ground, 2) the level of urban character. These criteria apply both to remote territories as well as to fragments of former villages engulfed in metropolitan areas. It is based on the interpretation of selected features of rural environment which are generally considered valuable by architects.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Everyday nationalism and urban culture – normalizing nationalist representations, discourses and practices in public space
    (AESOP, 2017) Kränzle, Elina
    Public space research has engaged in depth with progressive social and political movements which have appropriated and reframed public space as a political sphere and a space for local, lived democracy. However, urban public spaces have not only been the place of these progressive movements’ protests and occupations in the face of crisis and austerity policies. I want to briefly sketch some of the different phenomena that show that public space has also become the place of anti-pluralist, xenophobic and nationalist protests: The Brexit-vote, a result of anti-immigrant sentiments and Euro-skipticism, brought increased xenophobic violence to public space. When the unleashed violence of terrorists has disconcerted public space yet again, the French government has extended the state of emergency curbing citizen’s rights such as the right to assembly and protest. Another example of urban space being used for rightist and nationalist strategies is Turkey. After the failed coup in Turkey, thousands followed the call of Erdogan for a “Democracy Watch” in Taksim square, re-appropriating the symbol of the 2013 Gezi Park Protests against the government with national symbolism. In 2015 the rightist movement Patriotic Europeans against the Islamisation of the Occident (PEGIDA) came to a head with 10.000 citizens protesting in Dresden (Zeit.de). These observations point to the relevance of urban public spaces in the operation of rightist political organisation. They postulate a closer look at urban public space as a central arena of the right’s antipluralist, xenophobic and nationalist agenda. Furthermore, they expose the city a contested space of both progressive and rightist appropriations. The aim of this paper is to pay attention not to the overt protests and demonstrations but to expose everyday and popular nationalism in public space. It seeks to address the representations, discourses and practices that normalize nationalism in public space. The research therefore challenges the notion of rightist spaces as rural phenomena as well as it challenges the notion of urbanity at the heart of inclusive and cosmopolitan societies. Based on Bulut’s (2006) definition of popular nationalism as “the exacerbation of nationalist feelings and the increased attachment to the idea of the nation in everyday representations, discourses and practices” (p.125) this paper points out the return of nationalisms to public space, drawing on the democracy watch protests and the popular festivities of the Austrian National Day. It aims to present first explorations of rightist appropriations and nationalism in public space to develop future research propositions.