2015 Definite Space – Fuzzy Responsibility, Prague, 13-16th July

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  • PublicationRestricted
    Negotiating cultural heritage: the case of the new Dutch water defense line
    (AESOP, 2015) Raats, Koen; de Vries, Jochem
    The shift from government to governance has changed the relationship between the public many policy fields. Providing collective services and goods is traditionally seen as a so but is recently more and more provided in close cooperation with the private sector. The values takes place in dynamic policy arenas where there is continuous tension between the interest. This paper focuses on the critical conditions for successful negotiations. Framing and institutional planning theory emphasize different variables that explain the successful negotiations in governance arenas. A crucial difference between both theoretical perspective problem definition in negotiations. Whereas the institutional planning perspective takes problem as a fixed, static entity that different actors try to solve in the most effective theory suggests that different actors could interpret the collective problem differently From this viewpoint the problem definition is shaped and reshaped by the actors during. The relation between the institutional context and the framing of policy problems is the paper. The cultural heritage sector is a perfect example of a sector that has changed from a pub to an arena in which public and private actors are negotiating on policy outcomes. This the action arena was set around a static and single problem definition, resulting in a pr in which integration of diverging frames was extremely hard.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Permanent public art from the perspective of claims and context
    (AESOP, 2015) Vlachynska, Petra
    Permanent public art is one of the layers of the city. In the Czech Republic the practice of public art dramatically changed after1989. All the legislative and institutional support that regulated and ideologically controlled this domain was abolished. New strategies and policy have not yet been established. However, new permanent public art is still installed into the cities. This contribution analyses three phases of the process leading to the new art in the city. Claims, context and art itself are three elements of the whole. They have equal importance. Theoretical understanding of claims, context and art can lead to the precise articulation of future claims, appropriate expectation and better evaluation of benefits. Claims are specific in time and space. Claims, often expressed by the subjects initiating the process of creation, represent mental soil. They are formulated in official strategies (general level) or discussed for the purpose of a specific work. The importance of context developed significantly in the last decades. Context is considered a crucial element in the meaning of public art. Location of important public art, monuments and memorials requires a complex approach and the involvement of artistic professionals, architects and preservationists. Art in public spaces lays on the intersection of different forces: artistic individuality and public interest, sensitivity for actual issues as well as long-term values.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    An initial exploration of Disneyland Shanghai from a planning perspective
    (AESOP, 2015) Mao, Weifeng; Warren, Robert
    After more than ten years negotiation, Disneyland ultimately decided to locate in Shanghai. This article firstly makes an introduction of the background of Disneyland in Shanghai, and analyzes the balance of its investment and return, explores cultural difference, which will help culture exchange Disney culture was brought to Asia, and local culture in Asia, especially in China, affected western culture other than Disney culture. On the other hand, it’ll help Walt Disney World and government to plan a better Disneyland. Furthermore, it explores the strengths and weaknesses of five existing Disney worlds. It analyzes the influence on economic, cultural, planning and governance/management field, and costs and benefits. From the study of Disneyland worldwide, especially Disneyland Hong Kong, according to the background of Shanghai and China, several suggestions are proposed to Disneyland Shanghai, to present an initial exploration of the range of issues that can be raised about the influence of the Disney theme park on Shanghai. Finally, this article draws a conclusion---an agenda for further research and policy analysis from a planning perspective, including their operation mode, competition with other theme parks and its survival issue, and ticket price and ticket selling system. Last but not the least, it analyzes the potential influence on the price of land and house, as well as the stock market.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Creative-based tourism development in small scale towns: a case of Alaçati
    (AESOP, 2015) Ince, Irem; Velibeyoglu, Koray
    Today, tourism has rapid expansion with the term of globalization (Hall and Page, 2003). Globalization offers technological innovations in transport, communication and information spreading around the world and it also reduces borders and barriers for culture exchange. Tourism development has been viewed as an opportunity for economic development of many destinations. In spite of the fact that negative impacts embodied in rapid development of tourism based on globalization process. Many tourism areas are in danger of mass tourism that consume sensitive landscapes and characteristics of settlements (Endresen, 1999). In that sense, the new phenomenon of creativity including various concepts such as creative economy, creative class, creative industries, creative clusters and creative tourism comes out as a driving force to contribute development of tourism (Florida, 2002; Landry, 2000; Richards, 2011). For this study, small scale towns, which have a risk of substantial losses of their cultural values, landscapes and way of life due to the rapid development of tourism, is examined in terms of creative-based tourism development. In this context, an urban design approach is defined as a tool that has a hand in guiding creative tourism development. Moreover, urban design toolkit which has various methods and techniques is used for fostering and understanding creative environment of Alaçati, which is small Turkey. Ultimately, the study investigates creative environment of the small-scale town for understanding the dynamics between creativity and tourism in the context of sustainable development.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Mega-events decoupled from long-term planning: shortcomings and learning from the Istanbul 2010 European capital of culture
    (AESOP, 2015) Jones, Zachary
    Cities are increasingly turning to mega-events to secure much desired global recovery of future economic investment. While events such as the Olympics or Expos are generally of city centers, sometimes entirely divorced from the existing urban fabric, one embedded within the city itself: the European Capital of Culture. The ECoC is a consisting of cultural events typically situated within the city itself as well surrounding region. One of the longest running continuous EU policy programs, the operated for 30 years with over 50 cities holding the much-coveted title. How can utilize this mega-event for the greatest benefit to the city? This paper specifically focuses on Istanbul and its tenure as the 2010 Capital of the event’s use and conservation of the urban built heritage in connection with to the ECoC, the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality organized the Strategic Plan as the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan. Both documents largely ignore the possible integration into a long-term strategy for the city. This oversight reveals found between large-scale events and host cities. The paper investigates the root divisions, the negative outcomes of such a disconnected and short-sighted approach the opportunities for planning to integrate culture and complimentary economic ac commercialization and tourism.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Coastal tourism in New Zealand: a challenge for local culture in a changing era?
    (AESOP, 2015) Ismail, Kareem
    Tourism sustainability is based on its ability to represent local culture and being beneficial for the community. This paper deals with this topic through investigating the relationship between coastal tourism activities and local communities in five case study areas in New Zealand and comparing them according to sustainable tourism indicators. Data were collected and analysed using mixed method research approach through A) Case study visits and literature review to identify the tourism system characteristics and connecting them with theoretical tourism models such as McKercher’s chaos models. B) Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local community representatives to get their perception on the effect of coastal tourism activities on their culture and tourism strategies implementation. The results showed that the lack of regional tourism strategies leads to weakening of the institutional structure managing coastal tourism activities in New Zealand causing fragmentation in the responsibilities of different agencies. Local and iwi community representatives express their dissatisfaction of the planning for tourism, its negative effects on their culture and lack of job opportunities in tourism. However, they appreciate the efforts made by some governmental authorities such as MfE, DOC and some local councils in protecting coastal tourism environmental assets and their cultural heritage. The study recommends formulation of updated tourism strategies on the regional level connected with New Zealand tourism vision 2025, enhancement of community participation through using adaptive management approach, incorporating local iwi culture in tourism activities and increasing tourism job opportunities for local community members to achieve sustainable tourism outcomes.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    A study on the action mechanism of conservation laws and policies for historic towns and villages in China
    (AESOP, 2015) Ge, Tianyang; Hou, Wenjun
    In the past 30 years, the conservation of historical and cultural towns and villages in China has greatly developed. On the one hand, this paper reviewed the development, laws and policies system, and action mechanism of the conservation of historical and cultural towns and villages. First, the development of the conservation can be divided into three stages: the beginning stage, the national level conservation stage, and the legal system construction stage. Second, in policy respect, a policy system basing on two laws one ordinance was introduced, including 2 national laws, one national ordinance, several ministerial rules and regulations and over 100 local policies. Third, in conservation mechanism respect, a system of policies was introduced, including historical and cultural towns and vi application and approving, conservation planning, administration and financial support. On the other hand, shortages in the conservation were indicated. First, there is lack of ministerial and local policies focus on towns and villages. Second, there are too many administrative government departments and the conservation efficiency is low. Third, there is lack of sustainable development guidance, such as economy, society, population and culture. And these are the fields to be improved.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The plight of the "Chinese-style peasant economy" in the development of rural tourism
    (AESOP, 2015) Geng, Hong; Qiao, Jing
    Rural tourism industry brought many undisputable economic benefits to Chinese villages and farmers, which accounted for nearly a third of the economic benefits of the total Chinese tourism market. However, rural tourism has brought intense impact to the "Chinese-style peasant economy" structure, which is the China’s rural stable reservoir in the development of Chinese modernization. The rural tourism development pattern, including scale development, diverse planning and market-oriented, have a conflict with the. Chinese-style peasant economy., which is charactered by management dispersion, land use fragmentation and villagers’ self-administration. The paper researched the plight of "Chinese style peasant economy" in the development of rural tourism, and further studied the contributions of planning. Firstly, the necessity of the "Chinese-style peasant economy" structure in Chinese villages was proposed. Secondly, the traditional production pattern was broken due to the non-coupling between the rural tourism and the "Chinese-style peasant economy". Therefore, the peasant lost the elastic space and flexible choice in the development of rural tourism. Finally, the responsibility of planning in protecting the "Chinese-style peasant economy" structure was discussed. The multiple interests should be harmonized in rural tourism by planning. In particular, farmers. interests could be guaranteed and maximized by means of clarifying the land right, protecting rural space and guiding the cooperation.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Conservation and development methods of historic villages: a case study in China
    (AESOP, 2015) Hou, Wenjun; Ge, Tianyang
    At the early stage of the conservation of historic towns and villages in China, government basically focused on protecting the material space. At that time, tourist industry did great effect to help the historic towns and villages to survive. But, in the process of the rapid urbanization in China, Some of them are turned into tourist attractions without control. The contradiction between protection and development become more and more significant. They are facing the problem: how to balance all the factors? This paper studied a typical case in Jiangsu province, China. Frist the paper summarized the general planning methods during the main stage of conservation development in China. Secondly, the paper studied the current status of the typical case, and generalized the problems under the current conservation planning system, such as lack of safeguard mechanism to carry out planning, stress of land-use transformation, excessive tourism economy, and losing of the traditional lifestyle. Thirdly, the paper analysed the need and effect of different members involved in this case. At last, to solve these problems and balance different kinds of need, the paper presented three planning methods: first, put tourism land-use outside the core protection area. Second, set up the environment protection area, to avoid the stress of sprawling of urban area. Third, develop suitable and small-scale commercial activities. And the paper put forward two strategies: firstly, government should pay more attention on the carrying out of the planning, and give more rights to the local groups. Secondly, carry out dynamic planning.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The commercial preservation of Chinese heritage: a poisoned panacea for city modernisation
    (AESOP, 2015) Cinà, Giuseppe
    In China the entertainment and tourism industry, united to heritage preservation, offers today an unmissable opportunity to increase the living standard of cities. To this end a systematic use of the demolition and reconstruction of vast historical areas became both the keystone of a development policy and the paradigm of a rudimentary culture of conservation at political and technical level. This paper proposes a reflection on the multiple causes of this phenomenon, from the most obvious (the strength of the housing market, the collusion between private and public interests) to the less evident: the opaqueness of land market, the subordination to political power, the conceptualization of heritage in the Chinese tradition. To properly focus on the operational context of the demolition and reconstruction works in historic districts, the text compares some relevant aspects of the political system, the existing legislative framework and the technical tools adopted. Also, with reference to some significant operations the paper highlights how the demolition remains totally controlled by the real estate market and needs to be rethought as a political tool in order to target effective strategies of rehabilitation. In conclusion, the text highlights as in the process of preservation the field of action of the planners is extremely reduced, as operating within public boards strongly affected by a marked oriented policy and scarcely interacting with stakeholders external to the institutional power.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Inter-urban Competition and Urban Entrepreneurialism : A Perspective of China’s Urban and Rural Space Rescaling Process since 1978
    (AESOP, 2015) Cao, Zhan; Peng, Zhenwei; Bi, Sheng
    Since the Reform and Opening-up of China in 1978 the comprehensive effect of marketization, globalization, decentralization has created an economic miracle and unique urban and rural spatial phenomenon. In this process, the growing extensive Inter-city Competition environment has become the institutional foundation of local development. The behavior of Urban Entrepreneurialism has been played a principal role as well. To some extent, the growth machine formed by local government and enterprise dominated the urban and rural space rescaling process. Specifically, this process can be summarized into four phases: (1)1978~1980 township government in cooperation with the TVEs which lead to the thrive of small towns. (2)1980~2000, urban government work with State-owned Enterprises and few private enterprises which promoted the urban development gradually. (3)2000~2008, local government deeply cooperated with diverse enterprises both for profit and cause the savage growth of urban area. Since 2008, local government turned to smart growth because of the economic crisis and lack of resources. From the perspective of institutional change, and growing factors mobility, we constructed the basic analysis frame of institutional system and elements of change the formation of Inter-city Competition Urban Entrepreneurialism space changes, trying to explain the mechanism of China's urban and rural space evolution since the Reform and Opening-up policy from a historical-geographical-social view. 2018 - 2036
  • PublicationOpen Access
    A Study on the Optimized Evaluation Criteria for a Disaster-Prevention Urban Area in Yongkang District, Tainan City
    (AESOP, 2015) Yu, Yunchi; Chao, Tzuyuan
    Since the 921 earthquake struck Taiwan in 1999, Disaster-Prevention Urban (DPUR) become one of the major considerations in disaster-prevention policy. T DPUR projects by the Ministry of the Interior in 2013 aims to introduce an integ for urban areas with higher disaster risks. However, the need for clear and ite criteria for DPUR area selection is crucial. Controversial debates regardi designating the renewal area might result in high-risk area being undervalued low-risk area could be overvalued and stigmatized. Therefore, this research is proper evaluation criteria for DPUR areas in order to balance the possible negat on the renewal area. This research will be based on the second phase of the DPUR Research Project District, Tainan City, which was brought up by the Ministry of the Interior. buildings risk map, blocks with higher ratio of high-risk buildings per block w the potential DPUR areas. Secondly, cost-benefit analysis will be contacted for different ratio of the high-risk buildings. If benefit exceeds cost then it mak further invest in reducing the risk of disasters. Renewal cost will consider buildings, construction cost and land expropriation cost, etc. Renewal benefit potential disaster loss. This research is expecting to establish a better eva facilitate the designation of DPUR area that could consider both the moral conce feasibility.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Actually, varying neoliberalism in a global zone: development phases in Sydney’s darling harbour
    (AESOP, 2015) Searle, Glen
    This paper traces the successive phases of the redevelopment of the Darling Harbo as a central focus of the city’s transformation into a global city since the 1980 the paper is to identify the different versions of neoliberalism employed in each the institutional and politico-economic factors that have generated varying versi in the same zone. The paper takes the premise of Peck, Theodore and Brenner (2009 neoliberalism in practice is an imperfect vehicle that has to accommodate existing institutions and political structures as a starting point. The distinctive contri demonstrate how neoliberal outcomes in a given area draw selectively on such cont consequentially to show how the place-specific practices of neoliberalism can var time as different factors are drawn on at different times according to micro-poli changing development objectives. The paper analyses four stages of redevelopment Harbour area, using primary and secondary sources, to develop its argument: the Authority scheme of the 1980s; the City West Development Corporation redevelopment area in the 1990s; the post-2000 redevelopment of remaining old port land by the Delivery Authority; and the current redevelopment of convention and entertainment private Lend Lease Corporation.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Structural transformation and spatial inequality between north and south corridors of central java and Yogyakarta
    (AESOP, 2015) Ari, Rahadini
    This study is the preliminary research of spatial inequality in Central Java and Yogyakarta. Inequality within the same country occurred because of the differences in structural transformation at the same time in different regions. Java has two centers of growth, Jakarta and Surabaya. This two centers create an axis from west to east. This axis was started in 1808-1811 when the Dutch build the `Grote post weg´ connecting west Java (Anyer) to east Java (Panarukan) in the north coastal region of Java, later it was built until Banyuwangi. Among this two centers, Central Java plays as the `transit´ region. This study analyzes structural transformation using Location Quotient, to identify the shift away from agriculture to non-agriculture over the time intervals 1990 until 2000, 10 years before the decentralization policy was implemented and 10 years after it. Williamson Index is used to show the inequality trend between north and south corridors of Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces. This study shows that the transformation from agriculture to non-agriculture in north corridor implies a decline in the inequality trends. Many regions in south corridor are in primary sectors especially in agriculture and at the same time, the inequality goes up.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Identities of a peri-urban habitat : The potential for agricultural cluster development in Tirana
    (AESOP, 2015) Karafili, Elona; Marku, Endrit
    As often the case with the newly formed peri-urban areas in the outskirts of expanding cities, the territories that surround Tirana face the pressure of converting agricultural fields into urbanized land, resulting in identity loss, environmental deterioration, and high unemployment companioned by poverty and ultimately a low quality of life. Besides the challenges, the proximity to the capital city provides also advantages, such as economies of scale and scope deriving from the agglomeration of the activities, good access to labor force, market, infrastructure, as well as educational and research facilities, constituting therefore the basics for cluster development. This paper explores the evolution and present state of one of the first environments, in sequence, encountered by the visitors approaching the capital of Albania, Tirana. Once a carefully planned agricultural landscape, today it’s a hybrid urban-rural spatial continuum, a peri-urban habitat searching for a proper identity. We will try to elaborate on the potential of the area to host cluster development, with a specific attention paid to agricultural clusters that would have an important effect not only to its economic performance but also on the preservation of the territory and landscape.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Valuing the appearance of an Alpine landscape: the costs and benefits of underground cabling of high-voltage power lines
    (AESOP, 2015) Getzner, Michael; Lang, Thomas
    High-voltage power lines are crucial for the security of electricity supply, and also necessary for regional renewable electricity production. However, power lines cause damage especially to human health (electric smog, noise), and to sensitive ecosystems. The fragmentation and impaired appearance of Alpine landscapes has raised major opposition towards the planning of new power lines in Austria. An alternative, though very costly, to the erection of new lines is underground cabling. The current study presents the costs and benefits of underground cabling in a major Austrian tourist resort in the Tyrolean Alps; tourists were asked to value improvements of the appearance of the landscape with two approaches. The first presented respondents with manipulated pictures of the landscape with the existing and without power lines, and asked for the potential change of the frequency of trips to the area. The second ascertained the respondents’ willingness-to-pay for a nature conservation fund financing underground cabling. While 60% of respondents would positively change their travel behavior with an improved appearance of the landscape, and also stated a positive willingness-to-pay for underground cabling (on average about EUR 9 to 13), the additional costs of underground cabling would not be outweighed by the tourists’ willingness-to-pay. For the purpose of planning new power lines, it is thus important to explore the full range of benefits of underground cabling including the willingness-to-pay of Austrian residents which might be much higher than that of tourists alone, and not only concentrate on the significance of a pristine Alpine landscape for tourism.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Unravelling the flemish mobility orgware : Analysing the role and relations of governmental institutions from the view of actor-networks in the transition to a sustainable mobility
    (AESOP, 2015) Van Brussel, Suzanne; Boelens, Luuk
    Mobility policy in Flanders faces major challenges regarding the liveability and sustainability. The Flemish government therefore wants to update the mobility system to the present needs and to launch the sustainable mobility transition. In this respect most mobility transition research focuses on (socio-) technical innovations (software) or infrastructural innovations (hardware), managing the demand side of mobility. However, the role and innovations of the organisational structure remained unclear. This research addresses this hiatus, by analysing the actors and factors of importance and their interconnections within the Flemish mobility system, and secondly by proposing possible orgware improvements. Hitherto there is no clear idea of how different mobility (related) organisations, e.g. companies, lobbies, governments, institutions and projects, are associated with each other. Moreover various innovations of the socio-technical nature challenge the present governance. Because the existing institutions and formal rules are regularly not (yet) harmonized with these innovations. To overcome these challenges and to accomplish the sustainable objectives, one needs to discover the underlying mechanisms and potentials of the mobility systems with regard to the travel, transport and traffic mobility markets. For that purpose, the analysis draws upon the literature of actor-network theory combined with institutional theory insights, both applied on conceptual mobility frameworks. Accordingly, we finally propose a conceptual framework for the analysis of the Flemish orgware, in order to come up with possible improvements regarding sustainability objectives.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Improving coherence between urban and transport planning in the Netherlands: towards improved accessibility
    (AESOP, 2015) Snellen, Danielle; Hamers, David; Tennekes, Joost
    Improving the coherence between urban and transport planning is an often policy makers and planners. Coherent planning provides more and better choice participation and travel (better accessibility) and allows for more spending. However, this paper shows that improving coherence is far from straightforward an empirical analysis of recent developments in both housing and employment patterns in the Netherlands, and taking an institutional (policy-oriented to analysing the current Dutch (national, regional and local) urban and policies, the paper shows how financial arrangements, (formal) regulations habits prevent better co-operation. After analysing the most relevant obstacles in the Dutch policy and planning strategies for improving the coherence between urban and transport planning and elaborated: increasing proximity; transit oriented development (TOD) chains and smooth transfers. These strategies can be implemented in the they can be valuable for urban and infrastructure policies abroad as well.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Vancouver, the transit-oriented city? The correspondence (or not) of public tran accessibility and urban intensification through the lens of accessibility tools
    (AESOP, 2015) Scheurer, Jan; Townsen, Craig; Curtis, Cdarey
    Vancouver, Canada s third largest city, has often been held up as a best-pra transport and land use planning in a New World context. Accordingly, in the a Network Analysis for Multimodal Urban Transport Systems (SNAMUTS) tool to Australasia and North America, Vancouver scored top results on the majority of public transit. But how does a successful big-picture outcome translate int relate to historic factors that predate Vancouver s focus on sustainability- during the past quarter century? This paper will contrast the SNAMUTS result wi measuring public transit accessibility based on a time line spanning three dec history and the assessment of recent spatial priorities in land use and transp that despite high recent growth and intensification rates, much of Vancouver oriented urban form can be traced back to the city s light rail and streetcar 20th century, and that the spatial correlation of public transit service intensification over the past 30 years has been anything but consistent. We assessing the contributions of both methodologies towards a comprehensive repres accessibility in Vancouver, and will evaluate the magnitude of the shortfalls policy and practice across other cities in the SNAMUTS sample across the New Work.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    An overview of the major causes behind the low efficiency of light rail systems in Russian cities: the case study of the perm urban train project
    (AESOP, 2015) Saveleva, Ekaterina; Maksimova, Svetlana
    Like many other Russian cities, Perm - a city of slightly under one million inhabitants in the European part of Russia - suffers from sprawl, inadequate transportation system and consequent mobility problems. The population is scattered over the comparatively large area (Perm is the 6th largest Russian city in terms of area being only 13th in terms of population) and most of the remote areas of the city are not well integrated with the city centre. Being aware of the problem and seeking to improve the connectivity between different areas of the city local authorities have launched the project Perm Urban Train in 2004. The set up using the existing railway lines with an ambitious aspiration to become a skeleton of the city transport system. The goal, however, was not achieved so far. The paper years experience of Perm to develop its system of light rail trying to reveal the factors determined the project's modest performance and hampered its successful implementation. Based on the results of the analysis, optimisation steps and recommendations for further development of light rail system in Perm and other Russian cities are proposed.
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