AESOP Annual Congresses
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Every year, usually in July, AESOP holds its Annual Congress, hosted by one of member universities. Congresses are a wide platform of exchange in the fields of research, education and practice in planning. They usually run around 20 thematic tracks and host outstanding invited speakers.
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- ItemOpen AccessA Comparative Analysis Analysis of Urban Temperature (Air/Surface) and Heat Island Intensity Using S·Dot and Landsat8 in Seoul of South Korea(AESOP, 2022) Lee, Jae-Jun; Kim, Dae-Hye; Woong-Kyoo, BaeMore than half of the world's population lives in cities, and according to the United Nations, about 70% of the world's population will live in urban areas by 2050, given the current trajectory of urban growth. (United Nations, 2010) The growth of these cities causes climate change and aggravates abnormal weather phenomena such as heatwaves. This heatwave phenomenon causes the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon, which is one of the phenomena that occurs with the progress of urbanization, which refers to a phenomenon in which the air and surface temperature in the downtown area are higher than in the surrounding areas. (JA Voogt TR Oke, 2003) The UHI phenomenon worsens the urban environment, such as heatwaves and tropical nights, and threatens the life and health of urban residents. As a result, about 50% of the population is concentrated in the metropolitan area, which is about 10% of the national land area, and various urban problems such as an imbalance in national land development and the UHI phenomenon are occurring mainly in the metropolitan area. As a result, the average outdoor temperature was 13.5℃ in the 2019s, 1.1℃ higher than in the 1960s, and it is a continuous increase. It affects the climate change and the natural environment of downtown areas, impairs the quality of the urban environment, and threatens the health of urban residents. If the city's temperature continues to rise and climate change and destruction of the natural environment intensify, the quality of the urban environment may be compromised, which will endanger the health and life of city residents. Accordingly, from 2020, through the Smart Seoul Urban Data Sensor (S·DoT) construction project, the city of Seoul is building an industrial ecosystem using policies and city data to solve urban problems and improve citizens’ lives. Therefore, this study aims to present the possibility of using urban data sensors (S·DoT) by examining the temperature of Seoul and the surface temperature data of LANDSAT8, calculating and comparing the thermal island intensity of the air temperature and the surface temperature.
- ItemOpen AccessAdaptive Governance for Health and Social Equity : A Case Study of Hangzhou's Xiaoying Alley(AESOP, 2022) Luo, Yinglu; Zhang, YalanBy 2050, 68% of the world's population will be living in cities (United Nations, 2019). The sprawl of cities has raised concerns about environmental pollution, health inequalities, and many other health issues (Burris et al., 2007; Corburn, 2009). Governance is generally considered as the interaction and decision-making process in which government, market, and civil society work together to deal with public affairs (Rhodes, 1997; Healey, 2006), and identified to be an important approach in health promotion and health inequality issues (Kickbusch & Buckett, 2010). To address various health challenges, there has been an increasing number of studies in recent years that focus on how urban governance can be adapted in the health domain. Existing research is mainly rooted in Western countries, with less discussion on China's system and focuses mainly on the macro level, with a lack of attention to grassroots communities. This paper explores the adaptive governance process of a Chinese community in the health domain to bridge the gap. Adaptive governance originated in the field of environmental governance field as a strategy for regulating the social conflict in the management of complex ecosystems and aims to examine how different agents respond to highly complex and rapidly changing governance contexts (Chaffin et al., 2014; Folke et al., 2005). This paper conducts a case study based on the Xiaoying Alley community in Hangzhou. In 1958, Chairman Mao Zedong inspected the Patriotic Health Campaign in Xiaoying Alley, and since then the community has been famous for its health promotion work in China for a long time and was approved as a healthy community by the World Health Organization in 2013. The poor built environment and aging population bring many challenges to the community's health governance, and there are more health inequities than in other communities. The case study helps us understand how grassroots communities in the Chinese context mobilize a variety of actors to govern from a relatively poor conditions to promote health and reduce health inequities. This paper employs a policy arrangement framework to examine the characteristics of its health governance mode and its shifts in different phases and summarizes the main findings of this paper.
- ItemOpen AccessAffordable Overnight Lodging in High-Cost, High-Need Coastal Environments(AESOP, 2022) Riggs, WilliamOver the past 40 years, one of the strongest dialogues in the West has been the call to protect environmental resources, particularly access to the coastal environment. For example, in the mid-1970s the State of California created the Coastal Commission / Conservancy to protect, restore, and provide public access to California’s world-renowned coastal environment and marine resources. The California Coastal Commission (“CCC”) oversees all coastal development, manages habitat restoration and protection, and governs natural resource use. Coastal areas Section 30213 of the California Coastal Act (Division 20 of the California Public Resources Code) requires the CCC to protect, encourage, and, where feasible, provide for lower cost overnight visitor accommodations (“LCOVA”) along the State’s coast. As a mitigation measure per Section 30213, the CCC typically requires hotel and other development projects to include LCOVA facilities on-site, off-site, or pay an in-lieu fee. Despite such measures, the market has produced few LCOVA facilities along the California coastline. The supply of LCOVA facilities has not kept pace with demand, and as a result, coastal lodging facilities remain unaffordable to many Californians. Section 31104.1, Division 21 of the California Public Resources Code maintains the California State Coastal Conservancy (“SCC”) may, "accept dedication of fee title, easements, development rights, or other interests in lands, including interests required to provide public access to recreation and resources areas in the coastal zone."
- ItemOpen AccessAge Structure, Residential Density and Housing Quality : Using Citizen Hotline Data to Understand Community Conflicts in Shanghai(AESOP, 2022) Hou, Li; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Yiyi; Chen, XinCommunity conflicts make communal life complete. From the perspective of urban governance, mitigating neighbourhood conflicts and creating a harmonious society are key duties for administration at the grass roots. As for residents, community conflicts add chaos to everyday life. And sometime, as Crenson (1983) found, they also create community bonds. All of this means that community conflicts play an important role in shaping community life. So, what factors influence the occurrence frequency and content characteristics of community conflicts, and further to say, how they function? This has been a question of great interest to urban managers, community planners and residents. Both in terms of social structure and spatial pattern, urban communities are diverse and heterogeneous, which is becoming more so as urban economic growth and population mobility accelerate. Neighbouring communities may have vastly different spatial characteristics and environmental qualities, housing families with a wide range of occupations, educational backgrounds, and income levels, as well as access to wholly distinct property management. In varied urban communities that carry an increasing number of social affairs, it is crucial to critically examine the patterns of community conflict and governance, contradiction and change. However, the problems that arise between neighbours have not received the academic scrutiny they deserve (Cheshire and Fitzgerald, 2015). To deal with the growing complexity of community governance, the purpose of this research is to explore how community characters affect the intensity and types of neighbourhood conflicts. For instance, what age and social structure of communities tend to have less conflicts? Is there a link between residential density and the frequency of community conflicts? How do community characteristics affect the main types of neighbourhood conflict in different ways? Is the planner's drive to develop a higher-quality, more diversified community space in a high-density setting of social value? Understanding the mechanisms of community conflicts will help us to comprehend cities and move towards Good Governance. Research into the patterns of community conflicts once relied on the analysis of traditional social statistics. For example, basing on self-reported neighbour problems across Brisbane, Australia, Cheshire and Fitzgerald (2015) observed how neighbourhood levels of concentrated disadvantage, residential mobility and population density all increase the chances of residents encountering a combination of nuisance and antisocial or criminal neighbour problems over nuisance problems
- ItemOpen AccessAir Temperature CFD Simulation of Outdoor Space According to Height Change of Main Building of Apartment Complex(AESOP, 2022) Song, HyungiThe fact that abnormal temperatures and urban heat island phenomena are occurring all over the world has been revealed based on many existing studies. One of the causes of these abnormal temperatures and urban heat islands is human-induced urbanization. (Park Sang-wook, 2019) Nowadays, most cities in the world usually have temperatures between 1℃ and 4℃ higher than those in the surrounding rural areas, and the temperature increase in Korea is more than twice as fast as the average temperature in the world. In the past 100 years, global temperatures have risen by 0.74°C, the average temperature in the six major cities of the Republic of Korea has risen by 1.8°C, the precipitation has risen by 11.6m in the last 10 years, and the sea level by 10cm in 40 years Due to the recent realization of climate change, abnormal climates such as heatwaves, droughts, and cold waves are frequent and the damage is intensifying. The damage from the abnormal climate in Korea is concentrated in urban areas where more than 90% of the people live. (Ministry of Environment 2011) The reality is that apartment complexes, which account for a high proportion of residential buildings in urban areas today, are designed and built with quantitative development as priority, so the design to respond to climate change is insufficient. To this end, the thermal environment of the outdoor space of the apartment complex was analyzed by applying various types of design element types to the CFD simulation. Therefore, in this study, by simulating the microclimate environment of an apartment complex, the effect of temperature reduction in the complex according to the change in the height of the main building, a design element of the apartment complex, is to be analyzed in detail by using the CFD simulation program Envi-met.
- ItemOpen AccessAlpine Industrial Landscapes in Transition. Towards a transferable strategy for brownfield transformation in mountain regions(AESOP, 2019) Modica, Marcello; Weilacher, UdoSince a few decades in many European mountain regions a process of economic restructuring is leading to the decline of traditional heavy and manufacturing industry. The issue of brownfield transformation is therefore becoming a crucial topic in the sustainable development of peripheral and rural areas too, although not yet officially recognized. The complex environmental, economic and social challenges posed by brownfield transformation in mountain areas, added to the structural limitations of marginal contexts as such, require the development of a context-specific, transferable strategy. In this perspective, the Alps, as the most developed mountain region in Europe, can play a key role as a laboratory for brownfields conversion. The first results of this research, which include a comparative analysis of the most representative industrial brownfield typologies found in mountain areas, suggest that an effective and transferable transformation strategy can be successfully developed only if a “landscape approach” based on structuralist planning principles is used. Through the development of an according strategy, the research wants to show that industrial brownfield sites can be positively and constructively interpreted, in the Alpine context and possibly in other mountain regions, as a valuable territorial infrastructure to be reactivated rather than simply a vacant land to be redeveloped.
- ItemOpen AccessAn Analysis on the Development Gap Between the North and the South in China Under the New Pattern: Characteristics, Causes and Countermeasures(AESOP, 2022) Zhang, XuchenWith the continuous development of China's economy and the entry of socialism with Chinese characteristics into a new era, the main social contradiction in China has been transformed into the contradiction between the growing needs of the people for a better life and the unbalanced and insufficient development. Regional economic disparity is an important manifestation of unbalanced development, a long-standing phenomenon in the process of China's economic development, and also the focus of continuous academic attention. With the continuous promotion of the "western development" and the "rise of central China" strategies, the economy of the western region has grown rapidly. In 2019, the economic growth of the western region will reach 10.17%, the total GDP will account for 20.8% of the country, and the imbalance between the East and the West will gradually decrease. In contrast, in the northern region, the economic development has been slow in recent years, and the GDP growth rate has declined rapidly, while the southern region still maintains a stable development trend. In 2019, the GDP growth in the North was negative, about 11 percentage points lower than that in the south. The regional development pattern at the national level has gradually changed, and the East-West imbalance has gradually shifted to the North-South imbalance, and the gap has gradually widened. The unbalanced development between the north and the South has gradually become a new problem facing China's regional development. So, what are the main aspects of the unbalanced development between the north and the south? What are the factors that cause these imbalances? What can be done to promote the coordinated development of North and South China? These will become the key issues to be discussed in the process of building a regional economic layout with complementary advantages and high-quality development during the "fourteenth five year plan" period. However, for a long time, the academic research has focused on the gap between the East, the middle and the west, including the analysis of the difference characteristics from the overall perspective, the factor perspective, the employee income perspective, and the analysis of the causes and relevant countermeasures from the perspectives of governance, system, economy . However, there are few studies on the unbalanced development of the north and South regions, and most of them are analyzed from a single factor. Therefore, this paper believes that at the key point of the opening year of the "fourteenth five year plan" period, it is necessary to comprehensively sort out the reality of the unbalanced development between the north and the South and analyze the influencing factors of the imbalance, so as to put forward optimization suggestions for narrowing the gap between the north and the South and promoting the coordinated development between the north and the south, in order to provide reference for the strategic decision-making of China's regional coordinated development.
- ItemOpen AccessAn Ecosystem Services Based Model for the Reclassification of Urban Uses in Plans : A Decision Support for the Minimisation of Soil Consumption(AESOP, 2022) Adinolfi, Valentina; Coppola, Francesca; Grimaldi, Michele; Fasolino, IsidoroSoil that is not artificially covered is capable of providing services with both direct and indirect benefits for humans. It is, therefore, essential to assess the impacts of different land-use and urban planning choices by estimating costs and benefits associated with different land-use scenarios and/or protection policies. The dimensioning of municipal urban plans (Puc) sets the urban load, in accordance with the regulations, with the provisions contained in the Provincial Territorial Coordination Plans (PTCP) and on the basis of a careful analysis of the community's actual and irrepressible needs. The possible transformations envisaged in the Pucs lead to two types of consequences: on the one hand, they constitute a potential income for the municipal coffers in terms of taxation on building land and buildings constructed and in terms of urbanisation charges; on the other hand, the transformation of the land entails the definitive loss of the numerous and very valuable Ecosystem Services (ES) that it is able to provide. These are defined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA, 2005) as the multiple benefits provided by ecosystems to humankind and are divided into four categories: life support, provisioning, regulation and cultural values. A variety of approaches to assessing the ES provided by different land covers can be found in the literature. Some of them are based on matrices that, based on the opinion of experts (such as physical geographers, forest scientists and environmental engineers), associate each land cover class with a score related to the level of performance offered by each ES (Costanza et al., 1997; De Groot, 2010; Burkhard et al., 2012; Rodriguez, Armenteras & Retana, 2015; Santolini et a., 2015). The change in land cover from its natural state to artificial cover is technically termed land consumption. Forms of consumption range from total loss of the soil resource to partial loss of ES functionality. urban densification is also a form of land consumption insofar as it involves the introduction of new artificial cover in urban areas (Munafò, 2021). Zeroing net soil consumption means, therefore, avoiding the sealing of agricultural and open areas and, for the residual component that cannot be avoided, compensating it by renaturalising an area of equal or greater extent in order to restore its capacity to provide ES (EC, 2016). When considering soil as a resource, it is necessary to distinguish between land cover and land use. The term land cover refers to the biophysical cover of the earth's surface, while land use refers to the actual biophysical state of the soil, related to its use in human activities. The latter is, therefore, defined according to the present and planned functional dimension and urban use (Directive 2007/2/CE). A change of land use (and even less a change of land use provided for by a town planning instrument) may not alter the functions of the land and its capacity to provide SE and, therefore, not represent real land consumption. «The relationship between land consumption and population dynamics confirms that the link between demography and urbanisation and infrastructural processes is not direct and there is a growth of artificial surfaces even in the presence of stabilisation, in many cases decrease, of residents» (Munafò, 2021: 45). From this, the importance of correctly sizing Pucs, carefully balancing the need for new areas for human activities with the preservation of ES, aiming to achieve settlement efficiency (Fasolino, Coppola & Grimaldi, 2020).
- ItemOpen AccessAnalysis of Urban Space Vitality Based on Weibo Check-In Data : A Case Study of Suzhou(AESOP, 2022) Ma, Geng; Pellegrini, PaolaThe city is a carrier of all kinds of residents' activities and the core of public activities. With the rapid process of urbanization in China, the spatial structure of cities has been spreading, and in some cities, urban space has been redefined due to the construction of new districts and new cities, and the urban spatial structure has gradually evolved from a single center to a multicenter. In urban planning practice, multicentricity has become one of the common planning tools in major cities in recent years, and mega cities in China such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen all take multicentricity as the goal of urban development. The research on urban spatial structure in China mainly involves: theoretical studies, studies on the characteristics of urban spatial structure patterns, studies on the relevance of urban structure to social problems, and the exploration of the relevance of urban structure to social economy. The current stage of research mainly explores the spatial structure of cities by using planning and census data as the main data source and geospatial and morphological analysis as the method. However, these data have certain limitations, one of which is that the data accuracy is not sufficient to analyze the urban residents' aggregation within urban space at all scales, and the other is that the data are not real-time and cannot reflect the mobility characteristics of urban residents. In recent years, with the development of information technology, big data has provided new data sources for urban spatial analysis. Among them, the more widely used are: social network pictures, night lighting data, shared bicycle travel data, heat map data, cell phone signaling data, and online taxi travel data, etc. Scholars such as Ying Long, Lu Yu, and Zhiying Li have used these data to analyze urban space. However, these data have problems such as difficulty of access and few access channels for scholars. And the open-source Weibo check-in data provides a reliable alternative. Weibo check-in data records the check-in information of Sina Weibo users, which mainly includes information such as check-in time, check-in content, spatial location of check-in points, and the number of check-ins at check-in points. The Weibo check-in data can be obtained through an API interface, which is easier to obtain compared with the other data which has mentioned before, and has been widely adopted in the current stage of urban spatial research. At present, domestic scholars mainly use Weibo check-in data as a measurement of foot traffic in various spaces and as a method to identify urban functional areas, but less research has been conducted on urban spatial vitality with this kind of big data.
- ItemOpen AccessAssessing the Transition From Traditional To Participatory Heritage Management In Turkey(AESOP, 2019) Aydin, Gizem; Bleil De Souza; Clarice Cerutti, FedericoTurkey is in a unique geographical position with 18 nominated World Heritage Sites. Since 2005, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Committee requires a management system through participatory means to guarantee the protection of these sites. In this same year, Turkey enacted the associated legislation by proposing a new actor named site manager who has both local and professional knowledge with the main role of coordination of the site management system to ensure protection of the nominated property through participation. Public participation is therefore mandatory in the site management processes in Turkey. The aim of this research is to examine current site management practices in Turkey to understand how they address public participation inferring how the site manager scrutinises public participation during the development of the management plan. A combination of qualitative analyses is proposed to assess information contained in the documentation available for the development of management plans, including the management plans themselves. The focus is on understanding how knowledge from public participation is transferred, from focus group meetings to management plans, considering the actors, actions and outputs involved in the process. This case-based proof of concept provides a set of indicators to model public participation in site management processes to resolve the mistrust issues between authorities and communities and to gauge the level of knowledge transfer by the site manager.
- ItemOpen AccessBeyond global gains and local pains - Spacial inequality of Hinterland logistics(AESOP, 2022) Nefs, MertenTrade infrastructure and logistical activities have long been a source of prosperity as well as nuisance. The gains and pains of logistics, however, are not distributed equally across regions and cities. Important trade hubs such as Rotterdam or Chicago have built strong trade institutions and accumulated urban wealth, hereby making a successful trade-off between the global gains of trade and the local pains of congestion and pollution (Cronon, 1991; Kuipers et al., 2018). Since the rise of global supply chains, such hubs have grown beyond their city boundaries and formed logistical hinterlands. These extensive areas appear to represent a less favourable trade-off between gains and pains, judging by the increasing criticism against distribution centre developments, regarding landscape degradation, congestion (CRa et al., 2019) and precarious jobs (Bergeijk, 2019). In the hinterland of Rotterdam, the building footprint of logistics has increased fourfold since 1980 (Nefs, 2022), while congestion and labour shortages have also increased steeply and the planning system has been decentralized, giving more responsibility to local governments (Nefs et al., 2022). This paper discusses whether hinterland logistics can be regarded as a spatial justice issue, and how this may be reflected in the local spatial planning discourse. The concept of spatial justice emerged in the early 1970s, when Harvey and other geographers applied Rawls' (1971) theory on fair distribution of gains and pains to planning, which has gained traction in recent years (Rocco and Newton, 2020; Soja, 2010). This not only relates to infrastructures and spaces, but also the distribution of “financial, environmental and social benefits and burdens issued from urban development.” (spatialjustice.blog) Since public goods and negative externalities such as noise are not equally distributed geographically, accessibility as well as proximity play an important role in a spatial justice discourse. As Bret (2018) explains, geographical scales used in such discourses should also be seen as social constructs, which may be used to legitimize the outsourcing of pains to other territories and not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) positions. The procedural aspects of spatial justice, or how a planning system may enhance the fair distribution of gains and pains, have been explored by Healey (1996) and Ostrom (2015). Moroni (2020) reminds us that distributive justice cannot cover the full range of social justice issues, since not all goods are scarce, divisible and transferable. This also applies to aspects discussed in this paper, such as e-commerce and nitrogen emissions. The Dutch planning system, rooted in democratic water and land management, often faces land scarcity in light of economic and ecological ambitions. It is therefore understood to have the necessary institutions and motivation to enhance spatial justice (Michels, 2006; Salet, 2018).
- ItemOpen AccessBook of abstracts : Space for Species : Redefining Spatial Justice, AESOP annual congress, Tartu 25 - 29. 7. 2022(AESOP, 2022) AESOPParticipatory mapping can be used both in transactional person-environment research and as a tool for participatory planning. In the presentation, I will give examples of both usage cases of online public participation GIS (PPGIS) methodology. PPGIS methodology is among the most widely spread, digital, place-based approaches used in real life public participation processes and in the study of transactional person-environment relationship. Maptionnaire is an advanced example of PPGIS methodology that was originally developed in Aalto University and today used in more than 40 countries. To learn in what kind of real life public participation projects the tool was used and to identify the pros and cons of using this methodology, we studied over 200 Maptionnaire cases. The analysis revealed that the studied planning projects varied in geographical scale stretching from nationwide surveys to those concerning single buildings. In terms of the project topics green and blue area planning and management projects together with transportation planning projects comprised over half of the cases. When studying at which phases of the planning project the tool was used, both extremes of the planning process stood out, early initiation and the evaluation phases. To identify the pros and cons of PPGIS approach, we asked whether PPGIS tools can (1) enhance effective arrangements of public participation, (2) reach a broad spectrum of people and 3) produce high quality and versatile knowledge. The results indicated a variety of advantages and disadvantages in using PPGIS methodology in participatory planning practice. By categorizing the pros and cons of using PPGIS in practice, we can enable planners to implement more inclusive and influential participatory planning. Place-based approach is not only fruitful in promoting smart participation but also in transactional person-environment research, where the active role of both persons and the contexts is considered. A wide variety of research themes have been studied, e.g. social sustainability, active living, ecosystem service accessibility, perceived safety and the everyday service networks & mobility patterns related to various lifestyles. Many different user groups have participated the online PPGIS studies including children and young people and the elderly. These studies produce contextually and individually sensitive evidence about the ways urban structural characteristics are associated with human experiences and behavioral patterns. By anchoring research findings to specific contexts and specific planning solutions, these research findings can become an essential part of knowledge informed planning. Planners, however, 59typically rely mostly on the explorative analysis of the PPGIS data. Deeper, diagnostic forms of analysis can potentially be very useful, to explain how urban structural characteristics are linked with human behavior and to predict usage patterns. The search for urban and transportation planning solutions that promote both human wellbeing and planetary health is among the key challenges of today. Place-based research strategy helps achieving a more realistic and context sensitive understanding of the human aspects in planning and helps solving some of the most wicked problems of our era
- ItemOpen AccessBook of Proceedings : Space for Species: Redefining Spatial Justice : AESOP Annual Congress, Tartu 25 - 29. 7. 2022.(AESOP, 2022) AESOP; Jürgenson, Evelin; Leetmaa, Kadri; Pastak, Ingmar; Grišakov, Kristi; Raagmaa, Garri; Tammis, Toomas; Põdra, Kätlin; Muru, Toomas; Metspalu, Pille; Sooväli-Sepping, HelenOur motivation behind this title is to explore space in terms of all species, the environment in general as well as various territories and habitats, including different kinds of spaces as well, such as cultural spaces, for example. Under this title, we would unite the aspects of legislation and justice, technological solutions and developments, the concept of a smart city, considering the smart city infrastructure as a method for inclusion or exclusion. Although Estonia is small, the country and its landscape and cityscape are very versatile. The low population density has given rise to scattered urbanisation and planning also focuses on scattered areas. The title would enable to find a balance between the track topics that have remained throughout the congresses and new thematic sessions in order to promote interdisciplinarity and enable people from narrower planning research fields to come together to see the big picture, co-operation, the interrelations between areas and how things affect each other.
- ItemOpen AccessBuilt heritage and landscape role in the Rome metropolitan plan(AESOP, 2019) Nucci, LuciaBuilt Heritage and landscape are long-term cultural and material memories costantly reinterpreted by the contemporaries. Both are considered as fundamental level for local and regional development in the Rome’s Metropolitan Plan (Piano Territoriale Provinciale Generale PTPG). The Plan interpret nature, built heritage and landscape as key value that characterize the metropolitan identities. Settlement’s transformations in the plan arise from the physical and historical form of the territory and encourage a double polycentrism (Rome and 120 municipalities). One of the general objective of the plan is to reorganize present settlement in made the most of existing patterns rules and peculiarities by using principles of the compact city. The paper would like to point out how built heritage and landscape development have to re-shapes the territories of our dispersal contemporary city.
- ItemOpen AccessCharacteristics of Tod Guidance System and Enhancement Strategies in China(AESOP, 2022) Ye, DanAs urbanization progresses, the rapid growth of urban population size and the surge in demand for land will lead to continuous urban development and spatial expansion. In the last century, the motor-oriented development model adopted by many cities in Western developed countries has induced a series of urban problems [1, 2], including traffic congestion, air pollution, energy overload consumption, social differentiation and land waste. In this context, the concept of "New Urbanism", which advocates compact, high-density, diverse, mixed and sustainable development, has emerged [3, 4], of which Transit-oriented Development (TOD) is an important component. TOD is a type of urban development that maximizes the amount of residential, commercial, and recreational space within walking distance of public transportation; it emphasizes a close symbiotic nesting relationship between urban form and public transportation, and it is a concept that has been developed by the American architect Peter Calthorpe in his book The American Metropolis of the Future: Ecology-Community-American Dream. The TOD model has been used by many cities around the world [5-8] and has played a crucial role in promoting intensive urban development [9, 10], enhancing urban vitality and transportation synergy [9, 11, 12], and promoting low-carbon travel [1, 10]. Many cities in China are now vigorously developing urban public transportation to improve urban transportation services. It is urgent to explore how to scientifically guide the development of station areas, promote the efficient and high-quality construction of station-integration, improve the spatial quality and human-oriented experience of the city, and thus achieve sustainable urban development. Cities in North America have undergone a transformation from sprawling development to smart and intensive development, in which the TOD model has played a significant role. Therefore, this paper adopts an inductive and case study approach, firstly, to analyze the characteristics of the current TOD guidance system in China, and at the same time, to analyze the experience of North American cities in order to provide a reference for China's practice.
- ItemOpen AccessCharacteristics of Urban Settlements Impacting Migratory Bird Species in India(AESOP, 2022) Panjwani, AhefazOn a broad level, India can be divided into six types of climate (Padmanabhamurthy, 1990) This in conjunction with the country being situated in three of the major global flyways, makes conservation of avian species highly essential. The different climates lead to rich diverse biomes where the migratory birds stop, nest, breed and progess on to their destinations. The grasslands and wetlands throughout the country make effective pitstops for landbirds and water birds alike. With massive urbanisation taking over, these ecological spaces are constantly encroached, leading to a decline in the native and migratory avian species. While there are different initiatives taken by the Indian Government such as the National Action Plan and the Perspective Plan on bird conservation, these are tentative guidelines with no legal binding on urban development. In reality, the National urban planning code (Urban and Regional Development Planning Framework of India) and the urban bye laws are devoid of biodiversity clauses. Optional frameworks such as the Indian Green Building Council guidelines mention incentivisation for preserving nocturnal habitats and native vegetation. The absence of such guidelines in the Urban development norms make native vegetation an easy prey to development and loss of habitat for birds.
- ItemOpen AccessCinematic Open Spaces of Flanders : Spatial Planning and the Imagination of Flemish Open Space in the Fiction Films Bullhead and Kid(AESOP, 2022) Staessen, AnneliesWho does not know An Inconvenient Truth (Guggenheim & Gore, 2006)? Most people remember this as the title of a documentary film about global warming. Even people who did not see one image of it, know the film raised international public awareness on the subject. In fact, according to various studies (Butts, 2007; Jacobsen, 2011), awareness of climate change translates into behavioral change and in carbon offsets after watching the documentary. In any case, the film and its narrative concerning climate change and its consequences set things in motion. When coping with the effects of climate change in Flanders (northern region of Belgium), open space is considered to be primordial. In a densely populated and highly urbanized region such as Flanders, open spaces are crucial to retain water in the event of drought or sudden rains, to provide biodiversity and natural resources, raw materials, food production, and more. Although open space is of vital importance, it lacks a strong narrative. The concept or definition of open space remains often as diffuse and fragmented as its appearance in this so-called ‘rurban’ area, the blurred zone of urban and rural. Morphological differentiation with open spaces as the opposite of the city determined traditional planning discourses of the last 45 years (Leinfelder, 2007). However, this dichotomous planning model, urban development versus conservation of open space, has lost its relevance as the Flemish countryside is also characterized by urban sprawl. The building pattern takes 33% of the total land cover and is scattered over the area without concentration in big metropoles, leaving the remaining open spaces fragmented between the built-up plots. For a long time, open space was considered as the unbuilt area or residual space, which remained after all other developments and served as potential ground for agriculture or residential expansion. Similarly, comprehension of open space based on functional frameworks in terms of land use and land cover is equally incomplete and does not fully grasp the complex spatial mix of functions. The basic principle for open space is then the unsealed or non-built condition of land units by any unnatural cover. Consequently and according to this interpretation, open space coincides almost exclusively with nature and/or agriculture, the two major conventional land use categories. The increase of newcomers in land use and the transformation into hybrid ‘rurban’ spaces with mixed and multifunctional uses as urban agriculture, private gardens, horse meadows, etc., abolishes this categorization. (Brandt & Vejre, 2004; Dewaelheyns, Vanempten, Bomans, Verhoeve, & Gulinck, 2014; Wilson, 2007) Moreover, these transformations consolidate the inefficient spatial organization which is accompanied with economic and ecological problems. Prices for farmlands rise as the non-agricultural functions increase in agricultural areas, the cost for construction and maintenance of road and utility infrastructure is seven times more in a dispersed settlement pattern compared to concentrated city centers (VITO, (Vermeiren et al., 2019), traffic jams on these roads as a result of high frequency of daily commuting movements, are only a few examples of economical damage. Furthermore, this spatial organization, with amongst others this high amount of road infrastructure and traffic jams, also generates an ecological impact. Spaces for nature disappear as paved areas provide further development.
- ItemOpen AccessCulture, Productive Heritage and Spatial Development(AESOP, 2022) Scaffidi, FedericaCulture is an important driver of innovation for heritage management and spatial development. In recent years, many scholars have analysed this phenomenon to understand the effects on the territory (Dodd, 2020). Culture indeed has a transformative ability to create new flows and growth in the urban space. It positively affects the enhancement of local resources, and promotes social interaction and community spaces (Clark & Wise, 2018). In recent years, much attention has been given to the creative regeneration of marginalised heritage, such as productive heritage (Areces, 2005; Scaffidi, 2021). In Europe there are many cases that have recycled disused heritage through art and culture. At the heart of the debate are innovative communities, where cultural initiatives, art exhibitions, alternative forms of education and cooperation keep heritage alive. These are places often managed by social enterprises that involve citizens and local governments. These innovative social enterprises indeed promote the creative reactivation of neglected assets through cultural activities, services, and community involvement. Numerous studies have shown that these centres are able to create open and inclusive urban spaces (Scaffidi 2021; Schröder, 2018). They foster moments of debate and social interaction (Walker et al. 2004). These cultural enterprises aim to innovate in the art sector with new management models that promote culture, through social innovation practices. Many policies have been developed to support these enterprises to enhance local assets (Cerreta et Al., 2021). They promote a more open governance that includes stakeholders in decision-making processes, which innovates the development of assets culturally, socially, economically and environmentally. The research aims to discuss the importance of innovative cultural centres for the development of cities and the reactivation of underused heritage. Considering this purpose, the research examines specific examples where socio-cultural actions have been the driving force behind the creative regeneration of productive assets and spatial innovation. Today, creativity is an important factor in urban transformation. Culture enhances the innovative capacities of a society and plays a relevant role in spatial reactivation. The socio-cultural dimension is explicitly expressed in some examples of heritage reactivation.
- ItemOpen AccessDeveloping transformation strategies for Alpine industrial landscapes shown by the Styrian Iron Route in Austria(AESOP, 2019) Pechhacker, Julia; Forster, JuliaThe Alpine Space is one of the most important industrial regions in Europe. The transformation from manufacturing to service industry in the last decades and the decrease of traditional heavy and manufacturing industry are leaving impressive former productive landscapes of relevant size and complexity, so-called Alpine industrial landscapes behind. The potential value of these landscapes is linked closely to ecological, economical and social challenges in the development of these regions. No significant strategies or programmes for a transformation of industrial brownfields exist currently. The INTERREG project “trAILs " deals with the topic of industrial brownfields and aims to generate knowledge about Alpine industrial landscapes. It shows how future development paths for these sites can be developed and visualised and thus serve as a basis for discussion, decisionmaking and planning for the definition of concrete planning recommendations for municipalities. The overall objective of the project is to discuss and develop ways of raising awareness of the strategic development of brownfield sites, a topic that will continue to gain in importance in future. The following contribution focuses on the first project phase, in which a process for developing a transformation strategy was elaborated and tested in one of four pilot regions.
- ItemOpen AccessDwelling Decay : Housing Crisis, Urban Institutionalism and its Understanding of the Qualitative Shortage past, present and Future of Chile's Urban Housing Policy for the Improvement of Quality and Social Integration (2006 -2021)(AESOP, 2022) Hernández, Karen SaavedraSince 2006, Chilean housing policy has undergone a paradigm shift by focusing its attention on improving the quality of the urban housing stock. At that time, it was considered that the quantitative housing shortage had a certain degree of control from the state and institutions, with a sustained decrease compared to the Latin American context. However, since 2017, the housing shortage has shown a worrying increase, currently reaching its highest point since the return to democracy in the 1990s. With a current housing shortage of 739,603 dwellings, representing almost 12% of the total national housing shortage and affecting almost 2.2 million people, 12% of the national population, there is talk of a new housing crisis in Chile. Migratory and economic crises and the current COVID-19 pandemic add to the various factors that attempt to explain this increase in the housing shortage. However, this crisis is not only a housing shortage crisis, but also a crisis of quality and the persistence of housing and urban environment decay, which, despite an institutional policy to improve urban and housing quality that has been in existence for two decades, has not managed to reduce the gap. In this sense, the current housing shortage can be understood not only from the perspective of the quantity of missing housing, but also as a crisis exacerbated by the quality of the housing and urban stock built. In this sense, institutional factors have not been particularly highlighted as possible causes or aggravators of the housing conflict, in the sense of understanding how the institutional framework has perceived the urban decay and housing shortages. This article seeks to analyse how the Chilean urban-housing institutional framework has been modelling, through plans and programmes, its Urban Housing Policy of Improving the Quality and Social Integration of Chile, in the period between 2006, the year of the paradigmatic shift from housing quantity to housing quality, and 2021, when the housing shortage crisis was declared, as a way of understanding from where the institutions have epistemologically positioned themselves to generate the response to the housing shortage, with special emphasis on the quality shortage. It is hypothesised that Chilean urban and housing institutions, through their policy of quality improvement, have shifted the focus from subsidiarity to the understanding of housing deterioration, reflecting in interventions that, although they have a narrative in line with the search for quality, are based on proposals of extreme social targeting and lack of territorial relevance, the same principle under which the model of mass housing construction was developed in previous decades. Through documentary and bibliographic analysis, the history of Chile's Urban Housing Policy of Improving Quality and Social Integration is reconstructed, under which a series of programmes and plans have been organised to address the qualitative urban-housing shortage. This historiographic analysis allows us to understand where the Chilean institutional framework has been situated to address the quality shortage of its existing urban-housing stock, through various milestones of the national housing policy that reveal conflicts, rigidity, and institutional centralism, which in turn hinder the recognition of cultural and territorial diversity in the interventions. This article, as part of an ongoing doctoral research, hopes to be a contribution to the critical review of the policy of qualitative housing shortage, given that Chile has been a reference at the international level with its subsidised policy of access to social housing in previous times and that today, in the context of a new global housing crisis, the institutional responses address the crisis not only as a matter of quantity, but also in a comprehensive manner.
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