Publication Open AccessBook of proceedings : Planning for Transition, Venice 2019(AESOP, 2019) Fregolent, Laura; Musco, Francesco; Magni, Filippo; Lucertini, Giulia; Basso, Matteo; Maragno, Denis; Bertin, Mattia; Ostanel, ElenaContemporary cities and territories face significant challenges – natural disasters due to climate change impacts, ecological crises, growing socio-economic unrest, global migration, political rifts including a rise of right wing factions, ambitious public works and mega-projects – all of which require new capacities in dealing with such individual and multiple groupings of such challenging and profound changes. It is a matter of fact that at international level a discourse if not a condition of transition is pervading sectors and societies. This discourse points to alternative patterns and solutions to many of the challenges faced. A quickly changing scenario requires forms of planning, both locally and globally, which bear the capacity to support and manage mutable urban and environmental conditions. In fact, although cities do incessantly change, policy-makers and institutions are never fully prepared to respond to complex and risky situations, as well as relying on planning and policy tools which are often outdated; in addition, also existing theoretical frameworks, concepts, cognitive abilities and approaches become ineffective or outmoded. Each unintended or unanticipated change comes as a break to existing social, political, and administrative routines and yet is may be anticipated that mechanisms of collective reflection and action will be generated. The congress invites scholars and practitioners to present and discuss case-studies of cities and projects that have engaged in meeting challenging situations – supporting transitions in urban contexts. Specifically, it is aimed at offering an understanding of the forms of knowledge, concepts, tools, and skills needed to plan and address transition. Furthermore, it seeks to explore whether (and how) managing such changes has brought any overall reconsideration of the city design model and towards more general institutional reconfigurations. The book collects all the papers presented at the Aesop Venice 2019 conference. It is articulated in chapters that correspond to the tracks (16) and special sessions proposed (23). Publication Open AccessBook of abstracts : Planning for Transition, Venice 9-13th July(AESOP, 2019)Contemporary cities and territories face significant challenges – natural disasters due to climate change impacts, ecological crises, growing socio-economic unrest, global migration, political rifts including a rise of right wing factions, ambitious public works and mega-projects – all of which require new capacities in dealing with such individual and multiple groupings of such challenging and profound changes. It is a matter of fact that at international level a discourse if not a condition of transition is pervading sectors and societies. This discourse points to alternative patterns and solutions to many of the challenges faced. A quickly changing scenario requires forms of planning, both locally and globally, which bear the capacity to support and manage mutable urban and environmental conditions. In fact, although cities do incessantly change, policy-makers and institutions are never fully prepared to respond to complex and risky situations, as well as relying on planning and policy tools which are often outdated; in addition, also existing theoretical frameworks, concepts, cognitive abilities and approaches become ineffective or outmoded. Each unintended or unanticipated change comes as a break to existing social, political, and administrative routines and yet is may be anticipated that mechanisms of collective reflection and action will be generated. The congress invites scholars and practitioners to present and discuss case-studies of cities and projects that have engaged in meeting challenging situations – supporting transitions in urban contexts. Specifically, it is aimed at offering an understanding of the forms of knowledge, concepts, tools, and skills needed to plan and address transition. Furthermore, it seeks to explore whether (and how) managing such changes has brought any overall reconsideration of the city design model and towards more general institutional reconfigurations. The book collects all the abstracts presented at the Aesop Venice 2019 conference. It is articulated in chapters that correspond to the tracks (16) and special sessions proposed Publication Open AccessDigital participatory planning tools helpful side and side effects(AESOP, 2019) Shahin, AnasParticipatory planning is one of the latest directions of the urban planning field which began in the second half of the 20th century. Participatory planning back then used old fashion ways in doing so. Lately, urban planners start using digital participatory planning tools. These tools start to get spread worldwide for their help in the urban planning process. In the same time urban planners start having concerns regarding these tools and their side effects. One of these concerns is the issue of data privacy in digital participatory planning tools. This paper will explore the helpful side of digital participatory planning tools and their role in improving the urban planning process. Second, it discusses one of the side effects of these tools that is the issue of data privacy. Third, trying to find a solution for this issue and its side effects. The Swiss city of Zug experimented a solution which could be a possible solution. The experience of international experts of digital participatory planning tools spread worldwide will be collected. Once these tools are closer to solving their issues, these tools can be upgraded significantly in a way opens up a wide advancement towards effective urban planning Publication Open AccessRegional strategy design – addressing transformations in multiple ways(AESOP, 2019) Matti Wirth, TimoRegions in the 21st century are subject to global influences which include climate change, resource scarcities, economic transitions, demographic shifts and ongoing digitalisation. If sustainability is to be achieved within this changing context, new collaborations will be required which shape these transformations more proactively. Alongside this, awareness within planning has been evolving, including the recognition that various regional design approaches can complement established planning procedures. Building on these aspects, this article investigates the option to design long-term strategies for the development of regions which are facing fundamental change. To undertake this, a process is considered which took place within a real life experimental situation over a period of four years. This process involved the testing of a new model for “regional strategy design”, which required the cooperation with stakeholders from diverse institutional backgrounds. The Rhenish Mining Area (RMA) in Germany, which is characterised by rapidly changing circumstances, served as a case study. The discussion of the results reflects on the preconditions (e.g. established regional governance), outcomes (e.g. selective interventions) and the question of transferability. It can be concluded that regional strategy design has the potential to develop further as a field of activity. Publication Open AccessLand take and regional planning: promoting sustainable settlement development in urban regions(AESOP, 2019) Wahrhusen, NinaIn Germany the national goal of reducing land take is opposed to the increasing demand for new spaces for housing and commercial construction, especially in already concentrated urban regions. Many dominating regional centers are not able anymore to satisfy the settlement pressure within their own boundaries. So regional solutions are required. Regional planning is an important player concerning sustainable settlement concepts in Germany with almost fully developed tools to provide land reduced settlement structures. Within this paper success factors as well as obstacles for the realization of the vision of compact and environmentally sustainable settlement structures in urban regions are shown. On the one hand, it provides a presentation of the regional planning tools promoting this spatial vision. In the light of an implementation deficit of the regional requirements on local level caused by a lack of acceptance for compact and space-saving settlement structures, there is, on the other hand, a need for innovative approaches of informal cooperation, participation and awareness raising. For this purpose, two case examples from the German regions of Hannover and Stuttgart are presented. Publication Open AccessFuelling energy-transition with regional design ateliers(AESOP, 2019) Kempenaar, Annet; Pleijte, Marcel; Van Buuren, MichaelMany countries are ‘planning’ for energy-transition in the light of the challenges imposed by climate change. Energy-transition is expected to radically change the structure, the institutional design and the physical appearance of our energy system. One of the critical issues is to integrate energy-transition with other land-uses and spatial issues. In the Netherlands, regional design ateliers were organised to address these challenges. We studied eleven regional design ateliers to find out what the design ateliers contributed to dealing with energy-transition. Our analysis showed that the design ateliers played an important role in creating insights on the spatial implications of energytransition. This raised awareness amongst regional stakeholders on the impact of energy-transition, and affected their perspectives. However, our study also showed that some important (spatial) aspects, such as smart combinations with other land-uses and the transport and storage of energy, received little attention. Understanding energy-transition took up a lot of time, leaving little room for a full exploration of relationships with other land-uses, of possible solutions, and of integrated strategies. Therefore, we conclude design ateliers should also be organised in upcoming stages of ‘planning’ for energy-transition to further fuel the transition process and fully employ the benefits of regional design ateliers. Publication Open AccessTime Series of Urban Shrinkage Elements in Coalexhausted Cities: A Case Study of Two Typical Cities in Northeast China(AESOP, 2019) Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Zhiqing; Li, PeilunBased on the existing research, this paper first classifies the influencing factors of urban shrinkage into three categories: internal factors, external characteristics and potential factors, and further divides them into four categories: population structure change, economic and industrial change, spatial quality change and public facilities change. Secondly, taking Shuangyashan and Jixi city, two typical coal-based industrial cities in Heilongjiang Province of China as the research objects, from the point of view of time, using the method of big data classification and comparative analysis, the time series of key elements in each city is studied, the priority and lag relationship of elements are obtained, and the time law of mutual restriction of elements in each city is analyzed in depth, and the time series of key elements in each city is established. The time series model of the shrinkage of such coal-exhausted cities is put forward in order to put forward a common strategy to deal with the shrinkage of such cities from a time point of view. Publication Open AccessDiscussion on the factors of sustainable urban growth in shrinking region: Case study of Eucalyptus Hills in the city of Sakura developed by the private developer Yamaman(AESOP, 2019) Uemura, TetsujiThere are many previous studies discussing the issues and solutions of shrinking cities, but only a few studies have discussed the sustainable development of shrinking cities. This study focuses on the case of the Eucalyptus Hills development by Yamaman, its private developer, known as a best practice sustainable development of new towns in the city of Sakura in the Tokyo suburb in Japan. The study reviews the recognised aspects and features of the Eucalyptus Hills development as sustainable development by Japanese researchers and aims to abstract the implications for sustainable developments in shrinking cities. As the results, three features, namely, the existence of a mono-developer (town manager), a certain size of population to support living services business and a well-balanced demographic composition, can be considered as the conditions required for sustainable development in shrinking cities. These research results may be applied for dormitory towns in the suburbs of megacities, with sufficient job opportunities for such towns. Publication Open AccessDeindustrialization and urban shrinkage. Achieving urban sustainability in former industrial cities in France: the case studies of Nantes and Saint-Ouen(AESOP, 2019) Toura, VarvaraPopulation decline in former industrial cities is an undeniable fact and preparing to respond to it is a necessity. In my research urban sustainability is defined as a process to recover from social and economic recession which are usually linked to deindustrialization. The main goal is to survey how Nantes and Saint-Ouen became resilient after the period of deindustrialization and if they have the needed capacities of urban sustainability in dealing with population decline. The research method is descriptive-analytic. The descriptive method is used in order to define urban sustainability and relate it to previous studies in shrinking cities. The analytic method is used in order to identify the reasons that led to the population decline and the correlations between sustainable urban development and demographic evolution. The performed analyses included a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. The outcome revealed that the two cities have reached the goal of sustainable urban development as they almost doubled their population since 2000. The final conclusion is that the urban policies implemented by local authorities as long as the economic decisions taken by local enterprises can assist Nantes and Saint-Ouen inhabitants to encounter to social and economic recession resulting from deindustrialization. Publication Open AccessA Study on China’s County Sports Center Planning Strategy from Smart Shrinkage Perspective(AESOP, 2019) Liang, Bin; Wang, YangAt the end of 2017, the urbanization rate of China's permanent residents was 58.52%, which has increased by 1.17% over last year. It is expected to exceed 60% by 2020. Rapid urbanization has brought about expansion of large cities and contraction of small and medium cities. Most of counties become population decline areas, which are not suitable for extensive development. Meanwhile, sports facilities in China's counties are extremely lacking. The promotion of sports industry and national fitness policy are imminent. Based on current situation of urban and industry development, this paper points out the problems and misunderstandings of current county sports centers in China, and combines several planning practices to propose the view of “smart shrinkage”. According to the planning andconstruction of county sports centers, this paper proposes four planning strategies: improving efficiency under shrinkage, intensive scale under precise orientation, function rebuilt under needs and the open and flexible interfaces, intending to guide the development of counties in China and to provide reference for planning and construction of county sports centers. Publication Open AccessDialectical Understanding on Urban Shrinkage and Growth in China: Taking the Old Industrial Base Cities in Northeastern China as an Example(AESOP, 2019) Hu, Qimin; Yang, FanAccording to statistical data, nearly 60 percent of China’s population had lived in cities, by 2018. Recently, research reports show that China's population growth will enter a period of stagnation, followed by a likely rapid decline. This paper selects the old industrial base cities, in Northeastern China, as the research object. Based on the data of population, urban construction, fiscal revenue and LGDP, etc., utilizing data spatial visualization analysis software such as ArcGIS, this research reveals the space-time dynamic association between urban growth and shrink, happening in cities and in regions. Furthermore, the research analyzes the dynamic process of growth and reduction of population and land-use scale in individual city case, focusing on industrial landuse and the situation of related employment. At the same time, it reflects the socio-economic characteristics of urban outflow population, such as age, occupation, income, and the structural characteristics of the urban secondary industry as well as the transition trends. That means, the areas and cities to which the population flows, and the jobs performed, also have important explanatory implications on the things happening in case cities. Based on the analysis above, the paper proposes an understanding and definition of the shrinking cities in the context of contemporary China. And then it argues that, comparing with the economic growth and population accumulation previously, the status of population outflow, industrial decline and spatial shrink happening currently, still can be regarded as an urban development mode which isn’t represented by the growth of space and economic, but by the reconstruction of space, population and industry. Furthermore, the reconstruction of space has the rich connotation of smart growth. It is the right way for cities to seek new development engine and the mechanisms by which the engine works. Publication Open AccessManagement plans of Natura 2000 Sites and coastal land use plans: A study concerning an integrated approach to management of coastal zones in the Sulcis Area (Sardinia, Italy)(AESOP, 2019) Leone, Federica; Zoppi, CorradoThe Protocol of the Barcelona Convention on integrated coastal zone management defines integrated coastal zone management as “…a dynamic process for the sustainable management and use of coastal zones, taking into account at the same time the fragility of coastal ecosystems and landscapes, the diversity of activities and uses, their interactions, the maritime orientation of certain activities and uses and their impact on both the marine and land parts.” Although integrated approach to coastal zone management has increasingly acquired importance within the international debate, with particular reference to the European Union context, its implementation puts in evidence relevant issues as regards the conflict between conservation measures related to environment and natural resources, and local development-related strategies. From this perspective, Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) processes are particularly important since they are based on the implementation of a methodological and technical framework which aims at integrating environmental sustainability-related objectives, defined in national and regional strategies, into the local development strategies whose goals reflect needs and expectations identified by the local governments and communities. In a SEA-based conceptual framework, this study proposes a methodological approach to the integration of strategies and related measures expressed by the management plans of Natura 2000 Sites into coastal land use plans, which generates a system of consistent objectives and related planning actions. The fundamental assumption is that SEA of management plans and coastal land use plans is very effective to build consistency in terms of sustainability-oriented strategies and local development measures. The proposed methodology is implemented in order to integrate costal planning strategies and conservation measures related to management plans of Natura 2000 Sites with reference to three case studies concerning three municipalities, Calasetta and Carloforte, located in South-Western Sardinia, Italy. Publication Open AccessConceptual approaches of Maritime Spatial Planning. Principles and Planning Parameters(AESOP, 2019) Rampavila, Mary; Avgerinou – Kolonias, SophiaMaritime Spatial Planning is a fairly new process that offers a useful and valuable context for the sustainable development of the seas. Various international organizations and institutions of international cooperation (UNESCO, UNEP, EU, VASAB etc) approach MSP through their scope, define it, implement it. Every organization chooses an approach that fits its purpose. Characteristic of this is even the name of MSP. Should it be called Marine or Maritime Spatial Planning? Could these terms be used interchangeably as if they give the same meaning to the process? Examining various definitions of MSP, approaching those conceptually, highlighting similarities and differences, this paper seeks their link to the discipline of spatial planning that was focusing on coastal areas and was rather ignoring maritime areas up until recently. Sectoral policies were applied extensively, as if they were the unique user of the sea, ignoring or giving little importance to spatial impacts. Spatial planners were constantly choosing not to plan the sea, facing it as a landscape, significant for its aesthetic value and environmental importance. Has this absence of spatial planning discipline at the beginning of the process caused spatial planning discipline background gaps? There are considerations over MSP implementation. There seems that most marine/maritime spatial plans already elaborated don’t have a spatial planning approach but rather a sea use approach. But if the sustainable development of the seas is what is needed, it can be attained through strategic marine/maritime spatial planning instead of sea use plans, a multi-level spatial planning process and various levels of marine/maritime spatial plans. Planning principles and major parameters will be approached in an effort to set the framework of spatial planning process. Publication Open AccessReview of District Heating Systems in Italy for Future Enhancement(AESOP, 2019) Teso, Lorenzo; Dalla Mora, Tiziano; Romagnoni, Piercarlo; Gasparella, AndreaDistrict heating (DH) is an energy service based on the centralized production of heat, and its supply to final users. Most DH networks are currently located in the Northern hemisphere, while very few are located in the Southern hemisphere. For what concern the European Union, most networks are operating in northerner and eastern countries. Italy, with less than 10% of the population reached by DH systems, has still a significant, but quite low, market share in the European context. The purpose of this review is to present the current situation of the Italian DH sector. The first introductory part concerns the historical evolution of DH systems in a global perspective. Later, the attention moves on the European situation, with focus on the system geographical distribution, the level of technological development, and the implementation of renewables. Italy still plays a marginal role because of climatic differences in the country, the complexity for some areas to access renewable energy sources, and the lack of interest in this technology showed until the 70s. The conclusions of this work underline a large untapped potential that DH systems have in Italy, requiring adequate investments and researches to enhance the use of renewables as energy source. Publication Open AccessSmart Energy Transition: evaluation of cities in South Korea(AESOP, 2019) Lim, Yirang; Edelenbos, Jurian; Gianoli, AlbertoOne of the major objectives of smart city development is achieving energy efficiency and moving towards a low-carbon energy society. The idea is that ICT-embedded urban infrastructure can enable efficient energy management and contribute to reducing CO2 emission. In that sense, a smart city can play an important role in the energy transition. In South Korea, the government plays a major role in smart city development. Since the 2000s the governments implemented informatization and digitalization and since 2008 they started smart city implementation across the country. Then how these government-led smart city initiatives perform in the energy transition? The purpose of this paper is to discover the contribution of government-led smart city initiatives in the energy transition. After building a conceptual framework on smart city and energy transition, we develop a Smart Energy Transition Index. The 161 cities in South Korea are grouped into three categories: 1st and 2nd wave smart cities and non-smart cities. The index score is compared among the groups and the analysis showed that there is a significant difference between 2nd wave smart cities and the 1st and the non-smart cities. The analysis provided empirical evidence of the smart city’s contribution to the energy transition. Publication Open AccessThe Energy Justice Tool Suite: an interdisciplinary and comprehensive method for energy transition territorialization(AESOP, 2019) Henriot, Carine; Artis, Amélie; Molines, Nathalie; Seigneuret, Natacha; Antaluca, Eduard; Lamarque, Fabien; Martin, EwaWithin a French context of Energy Transition, the “Energy Justice Tool Suite” project aims at designing, experimenting and optimizing what we call an interdisciplinary and a comprehensive “tool suite” dedicated to energy justice. At the urban, technical and socio-economic levels, the idea is to design a “tool suite” to characterize, assess, evaluate and co-construct an inclusive energy and socio-territorial justice - with the actors of these territories. This research is based on an interdisciplinary approach, combining engineering sciences with social and spatial sciences, in order to co-construct an inclusive territorialization of energy transition, leading to energy justice. For this purpose, the “Energy Justice Tool Suite” project aims at designing, not buildings archetypes, but multiscale energy complex systems archetypes: physical phenomena to design the energy poverty assessment model at the block scale, and human behaviour, within an empowering perspective, through the animation of learning workshops. This experiment will be conducted on two fields of observation: Grenoble-Alpes Métropole and the region of Compiègne, to establish a transect of energy poverty situations. The “Energy Justice Tool Suite” project also aims at designing, experimenting and optimizing a transversal tool to aid decision making and a tool to aid consultation making for energy and socio-territorial multiscale justice. Publication Open AccessSpatial-based scenario analysis for the smart energy transition(AESOP, 2019) D’Alonzo Valentina; Vettorato, Daniele; Zambelli, PietroScenario analysis is a particularly interesting tool for the smart energy transition of cities and regions. It allows understanding the possible futures of an energy system with and without the implementation of strategic actions and under different conditions. The presented study deals with the development of alternative scenarios for the energy system of Valle d’Aosta region (Italy) and is aimed at suggesting sustainable pathways for its energy transition. In particular, the strategic actions want to foster the exploitation of Shallow Geothermal Energy (SGE), a renewable source still not exploited adequately in spite of its great potential to increase the energy efficiency in buildings. Two driving forces establish the base for the scenario development. T hey a re: 1 ) u sing S GE f or supplying the space heating demand of residential buildings, replacing some fossil fuels; 2) refurbishing part of the residential building stock for decreasing its thermal demand. Different combinations of these two drivers shape the developed scenarios, which are then analysed through some indicators. All the data processing is done following a spatially explicit approach. This GIS-based scenario analysis can support the decision-makers during the planning process allowing them to analyse from various viewpoints the alternative scenarios and to prioritise the different energy measures. Publication Open AccessThe notion of sociotechnical system in the planning process of a Smart Region(AESOP, 2019) Balest, Jessica; Garegnani, Giulia; Pisani, Elena; Secco, Laura; Vettorato, DanieleEnergy transition is a long-term change process of the energy system of regions and cities towards smart and low carbon features. From a technological point of view, energy system is an integrated system including several sources, technologies, and products for energy production, distribution, and consumption. From a social point of view, local population's choices and actions determine the time and the features of energy transition at regional and local scales. Energy system is not only technology matter. Sociotechnical and territorial approaches underline the importance of interactions between energy, society, and space. Based on these interactions, this research delineates an analytical framework and an applied definition of sociotechnical system for place-based contexts, with the aim to promote recommendations towards Smart Regions. Starting from the definition of the important concept in the social sciences of sociotechnical system, this research proposes an applied definition of sociotechnical concept in space-based contexts. This applied definition can shape and change the socio-energy system that is another important concept in social sciences, meaning the world that ‘one wants to create for the future’ (Miller et al. 2015). Publication Open AccessCitizen Participation in Transitional Society: An Evolution of Participatory Planning in Serbia(AESOP, 2019) Perić, AnaArnstein’s seminal article influenced both the scholars and practitioners to explore the ways of citizen engagement against the public administration and politicians. To illustrate this, I present the case study of Serbia through four phases of its planning history. After the Second World War, the topdown spatial planning for social good was controlled by the elite multidisciplinary technocratic decisions. Citizens were just informed about the possibilities for public insight and debate. The state decentralization of the1970s, influenced the shift of planning from the state focused allocation to the community responsive planning, based on delegated power of the civil sector in partnership with representatives of local politics. In the 1990s, when and development process was almost exclusively driven by private investment greenlighted by the national government, the citizen participation was not even manipulated – it did not exist, neither in planning legislation, nor in planning practice. Today, Serbia faces the privatization of state land and resources, while experts try to find their own place in an arena of manifold interests, making the citizens able to exercise only ‘de jure’ public consultation. The need for substantial citizens involvement is indisputable, however, the step towards its implementation follows the democratic development of Serbia. Publication Open AccessEngaging Non-Citizens in an Age of Uncertainty: Lessons from Immigrant-Serving Nonprofits in Los Angeles County(AESOP, 2019) Lee, C. AujeanProblem, research strategy, and findings: Arnstein’s (1969) ladder has informed how planners redistribute power among constituents and increase citizen participation. Since the late 1960s, the non-citizen population has increased in the U.S. This demographic shift has affected planning and community engagement because many immigrants experience disparate access to public goods and services more so than native-born residents. Non-citizens are also particularly vulnerable to shifting political landscapes due to citizenship status. I use 29 interviews with immigrant-serving nonprofits to identify unique challenges to serve non-citizen clients after the 2016 election. Immigrant nonprofit experiences are informative because they may be the first and only organization to provide non-citizens with services and resources in times of uncertainty. The interviews inform how planners can improve non-citizen engagement practices and redistribute political power. Interviewees highlight how non-citizens experience barriers to public services and spaces due to fear of deportation and abrupt changes in their citizenship status. As a result, non-citizens are selective in how and where they engage. Thus, they connect to informal and formal spaces that may exist beyond their neighborhoods. These experiences also increase noncitizen dependency on nonprofits. As planners improve immigrant incorporation through these considerations, they can improve how they balance power, constituent representation, and meeting residents’ needs.